SYMPOSIA PAPER Published: 08 September 2020

Melt Methods and Their Effects on Cleanliness for Bearing Performance


Cleanliness in bearing alloys is critical for bearing performance, especially in aerospace applications. As the demand on engine performance increases, the need for improved cleanliness becomes even more important. Double vacuum-melted bearing steels were introduced to the industry in the early 1970s and demonstrated that double vacuum melting improved fatigue life. Vacuum induction melting–vacuum arc remelting (VIM-VAR) products were eventually adopted by the industry for the more critical bearing applications. The cleanliness of VIM-VAR products will be reviewed, including data from automated inclusion analysis. The possibility of enhancing cleanliness by adding additional remelting to the double vacuum melt process will also be presented.

Author Information

Tomasello, Colleen
Carpenter Technology, Latrobe Operations, Latrobe, PA, US
Shannon, George
Carpenter Technology, Latrobe Operations, Fairport, NY, US
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Pages: 515–527
DOI: 10.1520/STP162320190106
ISBN-EB: 978-0-8031-7693-5
ISBN-13: 978-0-8031-7692-8