SYMPOSIA PAPER Published: 01 January 1991

Time-Temperature Indicators as Food Quality Monitors


This paper summarizes the benefits that can be obtained by the use of time temperature indicators (TTI) as monitors of quality in the food distribution chain and the requirements for their successful application. Modeling of the TTI response characteristics based on kinetic principles and the Arrhenius equation allows the estimation of the quality level of the food from the response of the attached TTI. The factors that define the reliability of the TTI under variable temperature exposure are analyzed.

Author Information

Taoukis, PS
University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN
Labuza, TP
University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN
Francis, RC
3M Company, St. Paul, MN
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Developed by Committee: F02
Pages: 51–63
DOI: 10.1520/STP14843S
ISBN-EB: 978-0-8031-5171-0
ISBN-13: 978-0-8031-1417-3