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    ASTM D202 - 17

    Standard Test Methods for Sampling and Testing Untreated Paper Used for Electrical Insulation

    Active Standard ASTM D202 | Developed by Subcommittee: D09.01

    Book of Standards Volume: 10.01

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    Significance and Use

    8.1 In the buyer-seller relationship it is necessary that an understanding exists as to the expected nominal characteristics of the product, and the magnitude of permissible departure from the nominal values. Also, it is necessary that an agreement be reached as to how many units of a lot can fall outside of the specification limits without rejection of the lot. It is this latter subject that is addressed by this test method.

    1. Scope

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for sampling and testing untreated paper to be used as an electrical insulator or as a constituent of a composite material used for electrical insulating purposes.

    1.1.1 Untreated papers are thin, fibrous sheets normally laid down from a water suspension of pulped fibers (usually cellulosic) with or without various amounts of nonfibrous ingredients, and which are calendared, if required, to obtain desired thickness and density. Nevertheless, these test methods are applicable, generally although not invariably, to papers formed by other means, to papers modified (during or after formation) by additions, and to papers given subsequent mechanical treatments such as creping.

    1.1.2 As an electrical insulating and dielectric material, paper is considered “untreated” until it is subjected to a manufacturing process such as drying, impregnation, or varnish treatment.

    1.1.3 The test methods given herein were developed specifically for papers having a thickness of 0.75 mm (0.030 in.) or less. A number of these test methods are also suitable for use on other materials such as pulps or boards. Refer to Test Methods D3376 or D3394 to determine which tests are applicable to pulps or electrical insulating boards. In the paper industry, some products in thicknesses of less than 0.75 mm are termed “paperboard”. Such products are included within the scope of these methods.

    1.1.4 These test methods are applicable to flexible fibrous-mat materials formed from suspensions of fiber in fluids other than water. Thicknesses of these mats approach 2 mm, and the fibers contained are possibly natural, synthetic, organic, or inorganic; fillers that are natural, synthetic, organic, or inorganic; and flexible polymeric binder materials.

    1.2 The procedures appear in the following sections:



    ASTM or TAPPI Reference

    Absorption (Rise of Water)

    78 to 83

    . . .


    45 to 54


    Air Resistance

    98 to 101


    Aqueous Extract Conductivity

    55 to 64

    . . .

    Ash Content

    40 to 44


    Bursting Strength

    102 to 107


    Chlorides (Water-Extractable)

    165 to 183

    . . .




    Conducting Paths

    138 to 151

    . . .

    Density, Apparent

    29 to 33

    . . .

    Dielectric Strength

    152 to 157


    Dimensions of Sheet, Rolls and Cores

    16 to 24


    Dissipation Factor and Permittivity

    158 to 164


    Edge-Tearing Resistance

    126 to 130


    Fiber Analysis

    74 to 77


    Folding Endurance

    108 to 110

    T 423 and D2176


    25 to 28



    158 to 164


    Heat Stability in Air

    131 to 137


    Impregnation Time

    84 to 91

    . . .

    Internal-Tearing Resistance

    121 to 125

    D689 or T 414

    Moisture Content

    34 to 39

    D644 and D3277

    Particulate Copper

    193 to 202

    . . .

    Particulate Iron

    184 to 192

    . . .








    6 to 13


    Silver Tarnishing by Paper and Paperboard

    203 to 206

    T 444

    Solvent-Soluble Matter

    65 to 73

    . . .

    Surface Friction

    92 to 97

    D528 and T 455

    Tensile Properties

    111 to 120

    D76, E4

    Thickness (see Dimensions)

    16 to 24


    1.3 The tests for Holes and Felt Hair Inclusions and the Stain Test for Fine Pores, have been removed from this compilation of test methods. These test methods were specific to grades of capacitor paper formerly covered by Specification D1930, which has been withdrawn.

    Note 1: This compilation of test methods is closely related to IEC Publication 60554-2. Not all of the individual methods included herein are included in IEC 60554-2, nor are all of the methods in IEC 60554-2 included in this standard. The individual procedures as described in the two standards are in general sufficiently close to each other that it is reasonable to expect that test results obtained by most of the procedures specified in either standard will not differ significantly. However, before assuming that a procedure in these test methods is exactly equivalent to an IEC 60554-2 procedure, the written procedures must be compared closely, and if it seems advisable, test results by the two procedures are compared.

    1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard.

    1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. See 43.2.1, 71.1, 143.1, 148.1 and 156.1 for specific hazards.

    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D76 Specification for Tensile Testing Machines for Textiles

    D149 Test Method for Dielectric Breakdown Voltage and Dielectric Strength of Solid Electrical Insulating Materials at Commercial Power Frequencies

    D150 Test Methods for AC Loss Characteristics and Permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of Solid Electrical Insulation

    D374 Test Methods for Thickness of Solid Electrical Insulation (Metric) D0374_D0374M

    D528 Test Method for Machine Direction of Paper and Paperboard

    D586 Test Method for Ash in Pulp, Paper, and Paper Products

    D644 Test Method for Moisture Content of Paper and Paperboard by Oven Drying

    D646 Test Method for Mass Per Unit Area of Paper and Paperboard of Aramid Papers (Basis Weight)

    D689 Test Method for Internal Tearing Resistance of Paper

    D726 Test Method for Resistance of Nonporous Paper to Passage of Air

    D774/D774M Test Method for Bursting Strength of Paper

    D827 Method of Test for Edge Tearing Strength of Paper

    D1030 Test Method for Fiber Analysis of Paper and Paperboard

    D1193 Specification for Reagent Water

    D1389 Test Method for Proof-Voltage Testing of Thin Solid Electrical Insulating Materials

    D1711 Terminology Relating to Electrical Insulation

    D2176 Test Method for Folding Endurance of Paper and Plastics Film by the M.I.T. Tester

    D2413 Practice for Preparation of Insulating Paper and Board Impregnated with a Liquid Dielectric

    D2865 Practice for Calibration of Standards and Equipment for Electrical Insulating Materials Testing

    D3277 Test Methods for Moisture Content of Oil-Impregnated Cellulosic Insulation

    D3376 Test Methods of Sampling and Testing Pulps to be Used in the Manufacture of Electrical Insulation

    D3394 Test Methods for Sampling and Testing Electrical Insulating Board

    D3636 Practice for Sampling and Judging Quality of Solid Electrical Insulating Materials

    D6054 Practice for Conditioning Electrical Insulating Materials for Testing

    E4 Practices for Force Verification of Testing Machines

    E29 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Test Data to Determine Conformance with Specifications

    E70 Test Method for pH of Aqueous Solutions With the Glass Electrode

    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 29.035.10 (Paper and board insulating materials)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 14110000(Paper products)

    Referencing This Standard
    Link Here
    Link to Active (This link will always route to the current Active version of the standard.)

    DOI: 10.1520/D0202-17

    Citation Format

    ASTM D202-17, Standard Test Methods for Sampling and Testing Untreated Paper Used for Electrical Insulation, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2017, www.astm.org

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