Standard Historical Last Updated: Feb 18, 2021
ASTM D202-97

Standard Test Methods for Sampling and Testing Untreated Paper Used for Electrical Insulation


1.1 These test methods cover procedures for sampling and testing untreated paper to be used as an electrical insulator or as a constituent of a composite material used for electrical insulating purposes.

1.1.1 Untreated papers are thin, fibrous sheets normally laid down from a water suspension of pulped fibers (usually cellulosic), which may contain various amounts of nonfibrous ingredients, and which are calendared, if required, to obtain desired thickness and density. Nevertheless, these test methods are applicable, generally although not invariably, to papers formed by other means, to papers modified (during or after formation) by additions, and to papers given subsequent mechanical treatments such as creping.

1.1.2 As an electrical insulating and dielectric material, paper is considered "untreated" until it is subjected to a manufacturing process such as drying, impregnation, or varnish treatment.

1.1.3 The test methods given herein were developed specifically for papers having a thickness of 0.75 mm (0.030 in.) or less. A number of these test methods are also suitable for use on other materials such as pulps or boards. Refer to Test Methods D3376 or Methods D3394 to determine which tests are applicable to pulps or electrical insulating boards. In the paper industry, some products in thicknesses of less than 0.75 mm are termed "paperboard". Such products are included within the scope of these methods.

1.1.4 These test methods are applicable to flexible fibrous-mat materials formed from suspensions of fiber in fluids other than water. These mats may have thicknesses approaching 2 mm, and may contain fibers that are natural, synthetic, organic, or inorganic; fillers that are natural, synthetic, organic, or inorganic; and flexible polymeric binder materials.

1.2 The procedures appear in the following sections:

ASTM or TAPPI Procedure Sections Reference (Modified) Absorption (Rise of Water) 78 to 83 Acidity-Alkalinity-pH 45 to 54 E 70 Air Resistance 98 to 101 D 726 Aqueous Extract Conductivity 55 to 64 Ash Content 40 to 44 DS 586 Bursting Strength 102 to 107 D 774 Chlorides (Water-Extractable) 165 to 182 Conditioning 15 D 685 Conducting Paths 138 to 151 Density, Apparent 29 to 33 Dielectric Strength 152 to 157 D 149 Dimensions of Sheet, Rolls and 16 to 24 D 374 Cores Dissipation Factor and Permittivity 158 to 164 D 150 Edge-Tearing Resistance 126 to 130 D 827 or T 470 Fiber Analysis 74 to 77 D 1030 Folding Endurance 108 to 110 T 423 and D 2176 Grammage 25 to 28 D 646 Permittivity 158 to 164 D 150 Heat Stability in Air 131 to 137 D 827 Impregnation Time 84 to 91 Internal-Tearing Resistance 121 to 125 D 689 or T 414 Moisture Content 34 to 39 D 644 and D 3277 Particulate Copper 192 to 201 Particulate Iron 183 to 191 Reagents 4 D 1193 Reports 14 E 29 Sampling 6 to 13 D 3636 Silver Tarnishing by Paper and 202 to 205 T 444 Paperboard Solvent-Soluble Matter 65 to 73 D 494 Surface Friction 92 to 97 D 528 and T 455 Tensile Properties 111 to 120 D 76, E 4 Thickness (see Dimensions) 16 to 24 D 374

1.3 This compilation of test methods is closely related to IEC Publication 554-2. Not all of the individual methods included herein are included in IEC 554-2, nor are all of the methods in IEC 554-2 included in this standard. the individual procedures as described in the two standards are in general sufficiently close to each other that it is reasonable to expect that test results obtained by most of the procedures specified in either standard will not differ significantly. However, before assuming that a procedure in these test methods is exactly equivalent to an IEC 554-2 procedure, the written procedures should be compared closely, and if it seems advisable, test results by the two procedures should be compared.

1.4 The tests for Holes and Felt Hair Inclusions and the Stain Test for Fine Pores, have been removed from this compilation of test methods. These test methods were specific to grades of capacitor paper formerly covered by Specification D1930, which has been withdrawn.

1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.> See 43.2.1, 71.1, 143.1, 148.1 and 156.1 for specific hazards.

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Book of Standards Volume: 10.01
Developed by Subcommittee: D09.19
Pages: 34
DOI: 10.1520/D0202-97