Significance and Use
In the buyer-seller relationship it is necessary that an understanding exists as to the expected nominal characteristics of the product, and the magnitude of permissible departure from the nominal values. Also, it is necessary that an agreement be reached as to how many units of a lot can fall outside of the specification limits without rejection of the lot. It is this latter subject that is addressed by this test method.
1.1 These test methods cover procedures for sampling and testing untreated paper to be used as an electrical insulator or as a constituent of a composite material used for electrical insulating purposes.
1.1.1 Untreated papers are thin, fibrous sheets normally laid down from a water suspension of pulped fibers (usually cellulosic), which may contain various amounts of nonfibrous ingredients, and which are calendared, if required, to obtain desired thickness and density. Nevertheless, these test methods are applicable, generally although not invariably, to papers formed by other means, to papers modified (during or after formation) by additions, and to papers given subsequent mechanical treatments such as creping.
1.1.2 As an electrical insulating and dielectric material, paper is considered "untreated" until it is subjected to a manufacturing process such as drying, impregnation, or varnish treatment.
1.1.3 The test methods given herein were developed specifically for papers having a thickness of 0.75 mm (0.030 in.) or less. A number of these test methods are also suitable for use on other materials such as pulps or boards. Refer to Test Methods D 3376 or Methods D 3394 to determine which tests are applicable to pulps or electrical insulating boards. In the paper industry, some products in thicknesses of less than 0.75 mm are termed "paperboard". Such products are included within the scope of these methods.
1.1.4 These test methods are applicable to flexible fibrous-mat materials formed from suspensions of fiber in fluids other than water. These mats may have thicknesses approaching 2 mm, and may contain fibers that are natural, synthetic, organic, or inorganic; fillers that are natural, synthetic, organic, or inorganic; and flexible polymeric binder materials.
1.2 The procedures appear in the following sections:
|Procedure||Sections||ASTM or TAPPI Reference (Modified)|
|Absorption (Rise of Water)||78 to 83||...|
|Acidity-Alkalinity-pH||45 to 54||E 70|
|Air Resistance||98 to 101||D 726|
|Aqueous Extract Conductivity||55 to 64||...|
|Ash Content||40 to 44||D 586|
|Bursting Strength||102 to 107||D 774|
|Chlorides (Water-Extractable)||165 to 183||...|
|Conducting Paths||138 to 151||...|
|Density, Apparent||29 to 33||...|
|Dielectric Strength||152 to 157||D 149|
|Dimensions of Sheet, Rolls and Cores||16 to 24||D 374|
|Dissipation Factor and Permittivity||158 to 164||D 150|
|Edge-Tearing Resistance||126 to 130||D 827|
|Fiber Analysis||74 to 77||D 1030|
|Folding Endurance||108 to 110||T 423 and D2176|
|Grammage||25 to 28||D 646|
|Permittivity||158 to 164||D 150|
|Heat Stability in Air||131 to 137||D 827|
|Impregnation Time||84 to 91||...|
|Internal-Tearing Resistance||121 to 125||D 689 or T414|
|Moisture Content||34 to 39||D 644 and D3277|
|Particulate Copper||193 to 202||...|
|Particulate Iron||184 to 192||...|
|Sampling||6 to 13||D 3636|
|Silver Tarnishing by Paper andPaperboard||203 to 206||T 444|
|Solvent-Soluble Matter||65 to 73||...|
|Surface Friction||92 to 97||D 528 and T455|
|Tensile Properties||111 to 120||D 76, E4|
|Thickness (see Dimensions)||16 to 24||D 374|
1.3 The tests for Holes and Felt Hair Inclusions and the Stain Test for Fine Pores, have been removed from this compilation of test methods. These test methods were specific to grades of capacitor paper formerly covered by Specification D 1930, which has been withdrawn.
Note 1—This compilation of test methods is closely related to IEC Publication 60554-2. Not all of the individual methods included herein are included in IEC 60554-2, nor are all of the methods in IEC 60554-2 included in this standard. The individual procedures as described in the two standards are in general sufficiently close to each other that it is reasonable to expect that test results obtained by most of the procedures specified in either standard will not differ significantly. However, before assuming that a procedure in these test methods is exactly equivalent to an IEC 60554-2 procedure, the written procedures should be compared closely, and if it seems advisable, test results by the two procedures should be compared.
1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. See 43.2.1, 71.1, 143.1, 148.1 and 156.1 for specific hazards.