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By using the surface photovoltage technique to measure minority carrier lifetime, it was found that grown-in defects of swirl in Czochralski-grown silicon crystals appear to be oxygen related and create recombination centers that degrade the lifetime more in the swirled areas. In addition, the degradation was also observed to be very sensitive to the previous thermal history of the starting material and to subsequent thermal treatments.
minority carrier lifetime, swirl defects, silicon
Manager of Advanced Crystal Growth, Arco Solar, Chatsworth, Calif.
Director, Materials Division, Chatsworth, Calif.