SYMPOSIA PAPER Published: 01 January 1960

Penetration Tests for Liquid Limit


For 48 yr the liquid limit test has furnished soil engineers with an empirical indication of the water holding powers of cohesive soils. While the original test devised by Atterberg in 1911 (1) is simple, it is so greatly affected by the operator technique that the results are often inconsistent. The mechanization of the test by Casagrande in 1932 (2) minimized many of these shortcomings and gave soil engineers one of their few standard tests—a test that is now widely used throughout the world.

Author Information

Sowers, George, F
Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Ga.
Vesić, A
Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Ga.
Grandolfi, M
Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Ga.
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Developed by Committee: D18
Pages: 216–226
DOI: 10.1520/STP44320S
ISBN-EB: 978-0-8031-5952-5
ISBN-13: 978-0-8031-6106-1