1.1 This guide covers procedures for measuring the bioaccumulation of sediment-associated contaminants by infaunal invertebrates. Marine, estuarine, and freshwater sediments are a major sink for contaminants that sorb preferentially to particles, such as organic contaminants with high octanol-water-partitioning coefficients (Kow ) (for example, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)) and many heavy metals. The accumulation of contaminants into whole or bedded sediments (that is, consolidated rather than suspended sediments) reduces their direct bioavailability to pelagic organisms but increases the exposure of benthic organisms. Feeding of pelagic organisms on benthic prey can reintroduce sediment-associated contaminants into pelagic food webs. The bioaccumulation of sediment-associated contaminants by sediment-dwelling organisms can therefore result in ecological impacts on benthic and pelagic communities and human health from the consumption of contaminated shellfish or pelagic fish.
1.2 Methods of measuring bioaccumulation by infaunal organisms from marine, estuarine, and freshwater sediments will be discussed. The procedures are designed to generate quantitative estimates of steady-state tissue residues because data from bioaccumulation tests are often used in ecological or human health risk assessments. Eighty percent of steady-state is used as the general criterion. Because the results from a single or few species are often extrapolated to other species, the procedures are designed to maximize exposure to sediment-associated contaminants so that residues in untested species are not underestimated systematically. A 28-day exposure with sediment-ingesting invertebrates and no supplemental food is recommended as the standard single sampling procedure. Procedures for long-term and kinetic tests are provided for use when 80% of steady-state will not be obtained within 28 days or when more precise estimates of steady-state tissue residues are required. The procedures are adaptable to shorter exposures and different feeding types. Exposures shorter than 28 days may be used to identify which compounds are bioavailable (that is, bioaccumulation potential) or for testing species that do not live for 28 days in the sediment (for example, certain Chironomus ). Non-sediment-ingestors or species requiring supplementary food may be used if the goal is to determine uptake in these particular species because of their importance in ecological or human health risk assessments. However, the results from such species should not be extrapolated to other species.
1.3 Standard test methods are still under development, and much of this guide is based on techniques used in successful studies and expert opinion rather than experimental comparisons of different techniques. Also, relatively few marine/estuarine (for example, Nereis and Macoma ), freshwater (for example, Diporeia and Lumbriculus variegatus ) species, and primarily neutral organic contaminants provide a substantial portion of the basis for the guide. Nonetheless, sufficient progress has been made in conducting experiments and understanding the factors regulating sediment bioavailability to establish general guidelines for sediment bioaccumulation tests.
1.4 This guide is arranged as follows:Scope 1 Referenced Documents 2 Terminology 3 Summary of Guide 4 Significance and Use 5 Interferences 6 Apparatus 7 Safety Precautions 8 Overlying Water 9 Sediment 10 Test Organisms 11 Experimental Design 12 Procedure 13 Analytical Methodology 14 Interpretation of Data 15 Keywords Annexes A1. Additional Methods for Predicting Bioaccumulation A2. Determining the Number of Replicates A3. Adequacy of 10-Day and 28-Day Exposures A4. Alternative Test Designs A5. Calculation of Time to Steady-State A6. Special Purpose Exposure Chambers A7. Additional Techniques to Correct for Gut Sediment A8. Bioaccumulation Testing with Lumbriculus variegatus References
1.5 Field-collected sediments may contain toxic materials, including pathogens, and should be treated with caution to minimize exposure to workers. Worker safety must also be considered when using laboratory-dosed sediments containing toxic compounds.
1.6 This guide may involve the use of non-indigenous test species. The accidental establishment of non-indigenous species has resulted in substantial harm to both estuarine and freshwater ecosystems. Adequate precautions must therefore be taken against the accidental release of any non-indigenous test species or associated flora or fauna.
1.7 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard.
1.8 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Specific precautionary statements are given in Section 8.