Significance and Use
4.1 Turbidity is undesirable in drinking water, plant effluent waters, water for food and beverage processing, and for a large number of other water dependent manufacturing processes. Removal of suspended matter is accomplished by coagulation, settling, and filtration. Measurement of turbidity provides a rapid means of process control to determine when, how, and to what extent the water must be treated to meet specifications.
4.2 This test method is suitable for the on-line monitoring of turbidity such as that found in drinking water, process water, and high purity industrial waters.
4.3 The instrumentation used must allow for the continuous on-line monitoring of a sample stream.
4.4 When reporting the measured result, appropriate units should also be reported. The units are reflective of the technology used to generate the result, and if necessary, provide more adequate comparison to historical data sets.
4.4.1 describing technologies and reporting results. Those technologies listed are appropriate for the range of measurement prescribed in this test method are mentioned, though others may come available. Fig. X3.1 from contains a flowchart to assist in technology selection.
4.4.2 For a specific design that falls outside of these reporting ranges, the turbidity should be reported in TU with a subscripted wavelength value to characterize the light source that was used.
4.4.3 Ratio white light turbidimeters are common as bench top instruments but not as a typical process instrument. However, if fitted with a flow-cell they meet the criteria of this test method.
1.1 This test method covers the on-line and in-line determination of high-level turbidity in water that is greater than 1.0 turbidity units (TU) in municipal, industrial and environmental usage.
1.2 In principle, there are three basic applications for on-line measurement set ups. This first is the slipstream (bypass) sample technique. For the slipstream sample technique a portion of sample is transported out of the process and through the measurement apparatus. It is then either transported back to the process or to waste. The second is the in-line measurement where the sensor is brought directly into the process (see Fig. 8). The third basic method is for in-situ monitoring of sample waters. This principle is based on the insertion of a sensor into the sample itself as the sample is being processed. The in-situ use in this test method is intended for the monitoring of water during any step within a processing train, including immediately before or after the process itself.
1.3 This test method is applicable to the measurement of turbidities greater than 1.0 TU. The absolute range is dictated by the technology that is employed.
1.4 The upper end of the measurement range is left undefined because different technologies described in this test method can cover very different ranges of turbidity.
1.5 Many of the turbidity units and instrument designs covered in this test method are numerically equivalent in calibration when a common calibration standard is applied across those designs listed in . Measurement of a common calibration standard of a defined value will also produce equivalent results across these technologies. This test method prescribes the assignment of a determined turbidity values to the technology used to determine those values. Numerical equivalence to turbidity standards is observed between different technologies but is not expected across a common sample. Improved traceability beyond the scope of this test method may be practiced and would include the listing of the make and model number of the instrument used to determine the turbidity values.
1.5.1 In this test method, calibration standards are often defined in NTU values, but the other assigned turbidity units, such as those in are equivalent. For example, a 1 NTU formazin standard is also a 1 FNU, a 1 FAU, a 1 BU, and so forth.
1.6 This test method does not purport to cover all available technologies for high-level turbidity measurement.
1.7 This test method was tested on different waters, and with standards that will serve as surrogates to samples. It is the user’s responsibility to ensure the validity of this test method for waters of untested matrices.
1.8 Those samples with the highest particle densities typically prove to be the most difficult to measure. In these cases, the process monitoring method can be considered with adequate measurement protocols installed.
1.9 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.10 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Refer to the MSDSs for all chemicals used in this procedure.
1.11 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.