Significance and Use
5.1 This test method has been developed by U.S. EPA Region 5 Chicago Regional Laboratory (CRL).
5.2 Bromadiolone, brodifacoum, diphacinone and warfarin are rodenticides for controlling mice, rats, and other rodents that pose a threat to public health, critical habitats, native plants and animals, crops, food and water supplies. These rodenticides also present human and environmental safety concerns. Warfarin and diphacinone are first-generation anticoagulants, while bromadiolone and brodifacoum are second-generation. The anticoagulants interfere with blood clotting, and death can result from excessive bleeding. The second-generation anticoagulants are especially hazardous for several reasons. They are highly toxic and persist a long time in body tissues. The second-generation anticoagulants are designed to be toxic in a single feeding, but time-to-death occurs in several days. This allows rodents to feed multiple times before death, leading to carcasses containing residues that may be many times the lethal dose.
5.3 This test method has been investigated for use with reagent, surface, and drinking water for the selected rodenticides.
1.1 This test method covers the determination of bromadiolone, brodifacoum, diphacinone and warfarin (referred to collectively as rodenticides in this test method) in water by direct injection using liquid chromatography (LC) and detected with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). These analytes are qualitatively and quantitatively determined by this test method. This test method adheres to multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mass spectrometry.
1.2 The Detection Verification Level (DVL) and Reporting Range for the rodenticides are listed in .
1.2.1 The DVL is required to be at a concentration at least 3 times below the Reporting Limit (RL) and have a signal/noise ratio greater than 3:1. displays the signal/noise ratios of the primary single reaction monitoring (SRM) transitions, and displays the confirmatory SRM transitions at the DVLs for the rodenticides.
1.2.2 The reporting limit was calculated from the concentration of the Level 1 calibration standard, as shown in Table 4, accounting for the dilution of a 40 mL water sample up to a final volume of 50 mL with methanol to ensure analyte solubility.
1.3 Units—The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.5 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.