Standard Active Last Updated: Nov 17, 2023 Track Document
ASTM C158-23

Standard Test Methods for Strength of Glass by Flexure (Determination of Modulus of Rupture)

Standard Test Methods for Strength of Glass by Flexure (Determination of Modulus of Rupture) C0158-23 ASTM|C0158-23|en-US Standard Test Methods for Strength of Glass by Flexure (Determination of Modulus of Rupture) Standard new BOS Vol. 15.02 Committee C14
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Significance and Use

4.1 For the purpose of this test, glasses and glass-ceramics are considered brittle (perfectly elastic) and to have the property that fracture normally occurs at the surface of the test specimen from the principal tensile stress. The flexural strength is considered a valid measure of the tensile strength subject to the considerations that follow.

4.2 The flexural strength for a group of test specimens is influenced by variables associated with the test procedure. Such factors are specified in the test procedure or required to be stated in the report. These include but are not limited to the rate of stressing, the test environment, and the area of the specimen subjected to stress.

4.2.1 In addition, the variables having the greatest effect on the flexural strength value for a group of test specimens are the condition of the surfaces and glass quality near the surfaces in regard to the number and severity of stress-concentrating discontinuities or flaws, and the degree of prestress existing in the specimens. Each of these can represent an inherent part of the strength characteristic being determined or can be a random interfering factor in the measurement.

4.2.2 Test Method A is designed to include the condition of the surface of the specimen as a factor in the measured strength. Therefore, subjecting a fixed and significant area of the surface to the maximum tensile stress is desirable. Since the number and severity of surface flaws in glass are primarily determined by manufacturing and handling processes, this test method is limited to products from which specimens of suitable size can be obtained with minimal dependence of measured strength upon specimen preparation techniques. This test method is therefore designated as a test for flexural strength of flat glass.

4.2.3 Test Method B describes a general procedure for test, applicable to specimens of rectangular or elliptical cross section. This test method is based on the assumption that a comparative measurement of strength on groups of specimens is of significance for many purposes such as: determining the effect of environment or stress duration, the effectiveness of varied prestressing techniques, and strengths characteristic of glass-ceramics of differing composition or heat treatment. In this test method, the surfaces of the specimens are not assumed to be characteristic of a product or material, but are considered to be determined by the procedures used to prepare the specimens. Though the stated procedure permits a wide variation in both specimen size and test geometry, use of identical test conditions and equivalent procedures for specimen preparation is necessary to obtain comparable strength values. The use of a controlled abrasion of the specimen as a final normalizing procedure is recommended for such comparative tests.

4.2.4 A comparative abraded strength, determined as suggested in Test Method B, is not to be considered as a minimum value characteristic of the material tested nor as directly related to a maximum attainable strength value through test of specimens with identical flaws. The operationally defined abrasion procedure undoubtedly produces flaws of differing severity when applied to varied materials, and the measured comparative strengths describe the relative ability to withstand externally induced stress as affected by the specific abrasion procedure.

4.2.5 Test environment (ambient air, inert gas, vacuum, etc.) including moisture content (for example, relative humidity) may have an influence on the flexural strength. Testing to evaluate the maximum strength potential of a glass can be conducted in inert environments and/or at sufficiently rapid testing rates to minimize any environmental effects. Conversely, testing can be conducted in environments, test modes, and test rates representative of service conditions to evaluate flexural performance under use conditions.


1.1 These test methods cover the determination of the flexural strength (the modulus of rupture in bending) of glass and glass-ceramics.

1.2 These test methods are applicable to annealed and prestressed glasses and glass-ceramics available in varied forms. Alternative test methods are described; the test method used shall be determined by the purpose of the test and geometric characteristics of specimens representative of the material.

1.2.1 Test Method A is a test for flexural strength of flat glass.

1.2.2 Test Method B is a comparative test for flexural strength of glass and glass-ceramics.

1.3 The test methods appear in the following order:



Test Method A

7 to 10

Test Method B

11 to 16

1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

1.5 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.

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Book of Standards Volume: 15.02
Developed by Subcommittee: C14.04
Pages: 10
DOI: 10.1520/C0158-23
ICS Code: 81.040.10