ASTM D445 - 17a

    Standard Test Method for Kinematic Viscosity of Transparent and Opaque Liquids (and Calculation of Dynamic Viscosity)

    Active Standard ASTM D445 | Developed by Subcommittee: D02.07

    Book of Standards Volume: 05.01

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    Significance and Use

    5.1 Many petroleum products, and some non-petroleum materials, are used as lubricants, and the correct operation of the equipment depends upon the appropriate viscosity of the liquid being used. In addition, the viscosity of many petroleum fuels is important for the estimation of optimum storage, handling, and operational conditions. Thus, the accurate determination of viscosity is essential to many product specifications.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This test method specifies a procedure for the determination of the kinematic viscosity, ν, of liquid petroleum products, both transparent and opaque, by measuring the time for a volume of liquid to flow under gravity through a calibrated glass capillary viscometer. The dynamic viscosity, η, can be obtained by multiplying the kinematic viscosity, ν, by the density, ρ, of the liquid.

    Note 1: For the measurement of the kinematic viscosity and viscosity of bitumens, see also Test Methods D2170 and D2171.

    Note 2: ISO 3104 corresponds to Test Method D445 – 03.

    1.2 The result obtained from this test method is dependent upon the behavior of the sample and is intended for application to liquids for which primarily the shear stress and shear rates are proportional (Newtonian flow behavior). If, however, the viscosity varies significantly with the rate of shear, different results may be obtained from viscometers of different capillary diameters. The procedure and precision values for residual fuel oils, which under some conditions exhibit non-Newtonian behavior, have been included.

    1.3 The range of kinematic viscosities covered by this test method is from 0.2 mm2/s to 300 000 mm2/s (see Table A1.1) at all temperatures (see 6.3 and 6.4). The precision has only been determined for those materials, kinematic viscosity ranges and temperatures as shown in the footnotes to the precision section.

    1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The SI unit used in this test method for kinematic viscosity is mm2/s, and the SI unit used in this test method for dynamic viscosity is mPa·s. For user reference, 1 mm2/s = 10-6 m2/s = 1 cSt and 1 mPa·s = 1 cP = 0.001 Pa·s.

    1.5 WARNING—Mercury has been designated by many regulatory agencies as a hazardous material that can cause central nervous system, kidney and liver damage. Mercury, or its vapor, may be hazardous to health and corrosive to materials. Caution should be taken when handling mercury and mercury containing products. See the applicable product Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for details and EPA’s website——for additional information. Users should be aware that selling mercury and/or mercury containing products into your state or country may be prohibited by law.

    1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

    1.7 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.

    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D396 Specification for Fuel Oils

    D446 Specifications and Operating Instructions for Glass Capillary Kinematic Viscometers

    D1193 Specification for Reagent Water

    D1217 Test Method for Density and Relative Density (Specific Gravity) of Liquids by Bingham Pycnometer

    D1480 Test Method for Density and Relative Density (Specific Gravity) of Viscous Materials by Bingham Pycnometer

    D1481 Test Method for Density and Relative Density (Specific Gravity) of Viscous Materials by Lipkin Bicapillary Pycnometer

    D2162 Practice for Basic Calibration of Master Viscometers and Viscosity Oil Standards

    D2170 Test Method for Kinematic Viscosity of Asphalts (Bitumens)

    D2171 Test Method for Viscosity of Asphalts by Vacuum Capillary Viscometer

    D6071 Test Method for Low Level Sodium in High Purity Water by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy

    D6074 Guide for Characterizing Hydrocarbon Lubricant Base Oils

    D6299 Practice for Applying Statistical Quality Assurance and Control Charting Techniques to Evaluate Analytical Measurement System Performance

    D6300 Practice for Determination of Precision and Bias Data for Use in Test Methods for Petroleum Products and Lubricants

    D6617 Practice for Laboratory Bias Detection Using Single Test Result from Standard Material

    D6708 Practice for Statistical Assessment and Improvement of Expected Agreement Between Two Test Methods that Purport to Measure the Same Property of a Material

    E1 Specification for ASTM Liquid-in-Glass Thermometers

    E77 Test Method for Inspection and Verification of Thermometers

    E563 Practice for Preparation and Use of an Ice-Point Bath as a Reference Temperature

    E644 Test Methods for Testing Industrial Resistance Thermometers

    E1137/E1137M Specification for Industrial Platinum Resistance Thermometers

    E1750 Guide for Use of Water Triple Point Cells

    E2593 Guide for Accuracy Verification of Industrial Platinum Resistance Thermometers

    E2877 Guide for Digital Contact Thermometers

    ISO Standards

    ISO 17025 General Requirements for the Competence of Testing and Calibration Laboratories

    ISO 3104

    ISO 3105 Glass Capillary Kinematic ViscometersSpecification and Operating Instructions

    ISO 3696 Water for Analytical Laboratory UseSpecification and Test Methods

    ISO 5725 Accuracy (trueness and precision) of measurement methods and results.

    ISO 9000

    NIST Standards

    NIST Special Publication 1088

    NIST Special Publication 811

    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 17.060 (Measurement of volume, mass, density, viscosity); 75.080 (Petroleum products in general)

    Referencing This Standard
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    DOI: 10.1520/D0445-17A

    Citation Format

    ASTM D445-17a, Standard Test Method for Kinematic Viscosity of Transparent and Opaque Liquids (and Calculation of Dynamic Viscosity), ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2017,

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