Standard Historical Last Updated: May 21, 2012
ASTM D445-11a

Standard Test Method for Kinematic Viscosity of Transparent and Opaque Liquids (and Calculation of Dynamic Viscosity)

Significance and Use

Many petroleum products, and some non-petroleum materials, are used as lubricants, and the correct operation of the equipment depends upon the appropriate viscosity of the liquid being used. In addition, the viscosity of many petroleum fuels is important for the estimation of optimum storage, handling, and operational conditions. Thus, the accurate determination of viscosity is essential to many product specifications.

Scope

1.1 This test method specifies a procedure for the determination of the kinematic viscosity, ν, of liquid petroleum products, both transparent and opaque, by measuring the time for a volume of liquid to flow under gravity through a calibrated glass capillary viscometer. The dynamic viscosity, η, can be obtained by multiplying the kinematic viscosity, ν, by the density, ρ, of the liquid.

Note 1—For the measurement of the kinematic viscosity and viscosity of bitumens, see also Test Methods D2170 and D2171.

Note 2—ISO 3104 corresponds to Test Method D445.

1.2 The result obtained from this test method is dependent upon the behavior of the sample and is intended for application to liquids for which primarily the shear stress and shear rates are proportional (Newtonian flow behavior). If, however, the viscosity varies significantly with the rate of shear, different results may be obtained from viscometers of different capillary diameters. The procedure and precision values for residual fuel oils, which under some conditions exhibit non-Newtonian behavior, have been included.

1.3 The range of kinematic viscosities covered by this test method is from 0.2 to 300 000 mm2/s (see Table A1.1) at all temperatures (see 6.3 and 6.4). The precision has only been determined for those materials, kinematic viscosity ranges and temperatures as shown in the footnotes to the precision section.

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Details
Book of Standards Volume: 05.01
Developed by Subcommittee: D02.07
Pages: 13
DOI: 10.1520/D0445-11A
ICS Code: 17.060; 75.080