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Since earliest times, men have settled along the shores of rivers and lakes to avail themselves of freshwater for their homes and industries. The American colonists built their mills along streams which could furnish power and supply the quality of water necessary for the manufacture of such goods as textiles and paper. In modern times, public awareness of the importance of water is mounting as headlines warn of a growing problem of water quality and availability. The expanding industry must carefully examine the limitations which water may impose on it: How much raw water will be available ten years hence? Can a portion of the plant's usage be reduced by recycle? What quality water might be required by new uses? How can this quality be achieved economically while impurity levels in the raw water supply continue to rise? What degree of waste treatment is required to preserve the stream water quality? To help bring these problems into perspective, this chapter on the uses of industrial water outlines general principles and practices rather than specific details of water usage by individual industries.