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The term “petroleum solvents” describes the special liquid hydrocarbon fractions obtained from petroleum for use in industrial processes and commercial formulations to dissolve, suspend, or transport the other ingredients of the process or formulation. In recent years, the variety of petroleum solvents has been increased considerably due to the development of refinery processes designed primarily for the transformation of low-octane feedstocks to high-octane fuels. These new developments led to the production of certain important solvents and intermediates which were obtained previously only from the coal carbonizing industry. By definition, the solvents obtained from the petrochemical industry-the alcohols, ethers, etc.-are outside the scope of this chapter.