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The use of closed systems has been advanced as a way of making the mixing and loading of pesticides a safer operation. An ideal closed system would transfer liquid pesticides from the original shipping container to the application equipment without any exposure of these chemicals to humans or the environment. The original shipping container would then be rinsed before being disconnected from the system, with the rinsate becoming part of the mixture to be applied. In the move from concept to practical application, closed system developers and users have encountered problems associated with the performance of the systems and the linkages between the systems and the shipping containers. This paper gives examples of these problems and proposes that solutions to them be sought through improved system designs, improved worker training, and the development of design standards for containers of products that are restricted to use in closed systems.
closed mixing systems, pesticides, containers, closures, probes, built-in probes, protective clothing, integrated pest management (IPM), pesticide exposure, tank mix applications
Biologist, Registration Division, Office of Pesticides and Toxic Substances, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.