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The magnetic particle and liquid penetrant methods are used routinely in the hydrocarbon processing industries to find surface flaws that usually are not evident visually. Some flaws originate in the material and during fabrication of equipment. Others originate due to service conditions and are often the product of interaction between mechanically induced stresses and corrosion. The competence of those using the methods is a capability factor. Both methods have pluses and minuses in their capability. Finally there probably are things that can be done to improve the effectiveness of the system used.
nondestructive tests, standards, magnetic particle tests, penetrants, system qualification
Engineering associate, Exxon Research and Engineering Company, Florham Park, N. J.