Published: Jan 2013
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Environmental considerations are increasingly affecting the profit margins of petroleum refineries and thus ought to be taken into account in the design and operations of refineries. This chapter is divided into three main parts, each addressing the three major types of environmental pollution related to the operations of a petroleum refinery: water pollution, air pollution, and noise pollution. The structure adopted in the systematic exposition of these different pollution types typically begins with the sources and characteristics of the pollutants and the consequences or effects that these pollutants bring about. Next, the related environmental regulations are covered in general. Subsequently, the associated reduction, control, and treatment technologies for the removal of the pollutants are presented in light of the legislative requirements. In the spirit of keeping up with up-to-date developments, the paper also discusses how the refining industry is reacting to global concerns over climate change as induced by greenhouse gas emissions, particularly carbon dioxide, as part of a suite of measures in the framework of refinery environmental management. The chapter concludes with a general outlook of the shape of events to come, particularly in view of the anticipated impending massive effects of global climate change.
Petroleum refinery, water pollution, air pollution, noise pollution, reduction, control, treatment, carbon dioxide
Khor, Cheng Seong
Center for Process Systems Engineering, Imperial College, London,
Dept. of Chemical Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario