ASTM E2340 / E2340M - 11e1

    Standard Test Method for Measuring the Skid Resistance of Pavements and Other Trafficked Surfaces Using a Continuous Reading, Fixed-Slip Technique

    Active Standard ASTM E2340 / E2340M | Developed by Subcommittee: E17.21

    Book of Standards Volume: 04.03


      Format Pages Price  
    PDF 6 $43.00   ADD TO CART
    Hardcopy (shipping and handling) 6 $43.00   ADD TO CART


    Significance and Use

    5.1 CFMEs are used to measure skid resistance on runways, roads, and various other trafficked surfaces. These tests may comprise operational testing, performed to obtain an immediate assessment of skid resistance in current conditions or routine testing in standardized conditions which include the application of a precise amount of water in front of the test tire.

    5.2 Standard test speeds and nominal water film thicknesses are according to national or international agency standards, the type of CFME, and the test application. Some examples of typical applications are given in Appendix X1.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This test method covers the measurement of the skid resistance of a pavement or other trafficked surface using the continuous reading, fixed-slip technique.

    1.2 This test method covers braked wheel measurements obtained with less than 100 % slip. It does not cover side force measurements.

    1.3 This test method provides a record of the skid resistance along the whole length of one track of the test surface and enables averages to be obtained for specified test segments.

    1.4 This test method is used to measure skid resistance on a wide variety of surfaces in a wide variety of circumstances. Consequently, there are many different designs of continuous reading, fixed-slip measuring equipment (CFME) and as many different test procedures governing their use.

    1.5 This test method does not attempt to detail these different equipments and procedures but does set out the essential common principles.

    1.6 CFMEs function by creating and measuring a frictional force between a test tire operating at a selected slip and the test surface. Different types of CFME do not necessarily create the same frictional force between their particular test tire and a common test surface and do not necessarily use the same method to measure this frictional force.

    1.7 CFME measurements are obtained at a selected steady test speed. This speed may vary according to the application.

    1.8 The test surface may be contaminated or clean and dry. If it is clean and dry, a measured amount of water is normally deposited on the surface just in front of the test wheel.

    1.9 The measuring apparatus may be built into a vehicle, built into a trailer that is towed by a vehicle, or built into a device that is manually pushed.

    1.10 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard.

    1.11 This standard may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Safety precautionary information is contained in Section 7.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    E178 Practice for Dealing With Outlying Observations

    E501 Specification for Rib Tire for Pavement Skid-Resistance Tests

    E524 Specification for Smooth Tire for Pavement Skid-Resistance Tests

    E867 Terminology Relating to Vehicle-Pavement Systems

    E1551 Specification for Special Purpose, Smooth-Tread Tire, Operated on Fixed Braking Slip Continuous Friction Measuring Equipment

    E1844 Specification for A Size 10 4-5 Smooth-Tread Friction Test Tire

    F408 Test Method for Tires for Wet Traction in Straight-Ahead Braking, Using a Towed Trailer

    F457 Test Method for Speed and Distance Calibration of Fifth Wheel Equipped With Either Analog or Digital Instrumentation


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 93.080.20 (Road construction materials)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code


    Referencing This Standard

    DOI: 10.1520/E2340_E2340M

    ASTM International is a member of CrossRef.

    Citation Format

    ASTM E2340 / E2340M-11e1, Standard Test Method for Measuring the Skid Resistance of Pavements and Other Trafficked Surfaces Using a Continuous Reading, Fixed-Slip Technique, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2011, www.astm.org

    Back to Top