Standard Active Last Updated: Feb 09, 2021
ASTM E2340/E2340M-11(2021)

Standard Test Method for Measuring the Skid Resistance of Pavements and Other Trafficked Surfaces Using a Continuous Reading, Fixed-Slip Technique

Standard Test Method for Measuring the Skid Resistance of Pavements and Other Trafficked Surfaces Using a Continuous Reading, Fixed-Slip Technique
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Significance and Use

5.1 CFMEs are used to measure skid resistance on runways, roads, and various other trafficked surfaces. These tests may comprise operational testing, performed to obtain an immediate assessment of skid resistance in current conditions or routine testing in standardized conditions which include the application of a precise amount of water in front of the test tire.

5.2 Standard test speeds and nominal water film thicknesses are according to national or international agency standards, the type of CFME, and the test application. Some examples of typical applications are given in Appendix X1.


1.1 This test method covers the measurement of the skid resistance of a pavement or other trafficked surface using the continuous reading, fixed-slip technique.

1.2 This test method covers braked wheel measurements obtained with less than 100 % slip. It does not cover side force measurements.

1.3 This test method provides a record of the skid resistance along the whole length of one track of the test surface and enables averages to be obtained for specified test segments.

1.4 This test method is used to measure skid resistance on a wide variety of surfaces in a wide variety of circumstances. Consequently, there are many different designs of continuous reading, fixed-slip measuring equipment (CFME) and as many different test procedures governing their use.

1.5 This test method does not attempt to detail these different equipment and procedures but does set out the essential common principles.

1.6 CFMEs function by creating and measuring a frictional force between a test tire operating at a selected slip and the test surface. Different types of CFME do not necessarily create the same frictional force between their particular test tire and a common test surface and do not necessarily use the same method to measure this frictional force.

1.7 CFME measurements are obtained at a selected steady test speed. This speed may vary according to the application.

1.8 The test surface may be contaminated or clean and dry. If it is clean and dry, a measured amount of water is normally deposited on the surface just in front of the test wheel.

1.9 The measuring apparatus may be built into a vehicle, built into a trailer that is towed by a vehicle, or built into a device that is manually pushed.

1.10 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in nonconformance with the standard.

1.11 This standard may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Safety precautionary information is contained in Section 7.

1.12 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.

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Book of Standards Volume: 04.03
Developed by Subcommittee: E17.21
Pages: 6
DOI: 10.1520/E2340_E2340M-11R21
ICS Code: 93.080.20