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Significance and Use
4.1 This test method is used to measure one-dimensional vertical flow of water through initially saturated TDAs under an applied hydraulic gradient. Hydraulic conductivity is required in various civil engineering applications of TDAs.
4.2 TDAs are to be tested at a unit weight and under an overburden pressure representative of field conditions. Data from the literature indicate a reduction in hydraulic conductivity with increasing vertical pressure (1).
4.3 Use of a dual-ring permeameter is included in this test method in addition to a single-ring permeameter. The dual-ring permeameter allows for minimizing potential adverse effects of sidewall leakage on measured hydraulic conductivity of the test specimens. The use of a bottom plate with an inner ring with a diameter smaller than the diameter of the permeameter and two outflow ports (one from the inner ring, one from the annular space between the inner ring and the permeameter) allows for separating the flow from the central part of the test specimen from the flow near the sidewall of the permeameter.
4.4 Darcy's law is assumed to be valid, flow is assumed to be laminar (Reynolds number less than approximately 2000–3000), and the hydraulic conductivity is assumed to be essentially independent of hydraulic gradient. The validity of Darcy's law may be evaluated by measuring the hydraulic conductivity of a specimen at three hydraulic gradients. The discharge velocity (v = k × i) is plotted against the applied hydraulic gradient. If the resulting relationship is linear and the measured hydraulic conductivity values are similar (i.e., within 25 %), then Darcy’s law may be taken as valid.
1.1 This test method covers laboratory measurement of the hydraulic conductivity (also referred to as coefficient of permeability) of water-saturated tired derived aggregates (TDA) obtained from scrap tires using a rigid-wall permeameter. The tire materials covered in this method include tire chips, tire shreds, and tire derived aggregate (TDA) as described in Practice D6270 with particle sizes ranging from approximately 12 to 305 mm. Whole scrap tires are not included in this standard. A clear trend between hydraulic conductivity and shred size has not been established at a given vertical pressure for shreds ≥50 mm (1).2
1.2 A single- or dual-ring permeameter may be used in the tests. A dual-ring permeameter may be preferred over a single-ring permeameter to take into account and prevent short-circuiting of permeant along the sidewalls of the permeameter. The effects of sidewall flow is more significant at high stresses and when the cell diameter is less than 6 times the particle size (1).
1.5 Test Method D2434 also can be used for determination of hydraulic conductivity of TDAs with sizes smaller than 19 mm under constant head conditions in a rigid-wall permeameter. Method D2434 includes the use of a permeameter with a single ring.
1.6 The standard units for the hydraulic conductivity values are the SI units, unless other units are specified. Hydraulic conductivity has traditionally been expressed in cm/s in the U.S., even though the official SI unit for hydraulic conductivity is m/s.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D653 Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
D2434 Test Method for Permeability of Granular Soils (Constant Head)
D3740 Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
D4753 Guide for Evaluating, Selecting, and Specifying Balances and Standard Masses for Use in Soil, Rock, and Construction Materials Testing
D6026 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
D6270 Practice for Use of Scrap Tires in Civil Engineering Applications
ICS Number Code 83.160.01 (Tyres in general)
UNSPSC Code 25172500(Tires and tire tubes)