Significance and Use
4.1 This test method is used to measure one-dimensional vertical flow of water through initially saturated samples of materials derived from scrap tires under an applied hydraulic gradient. Hydraulic conductivity is required in various civil engineering applications of scrap tires.
4.2 Samples are to be tested at a unit weight and under an overburden pressure representative of field conditions. Data from the literature indicate a reduction in hydraulic conductivity with increasing vertical pressure (. )
4.3 Use of a dual-ring permeameter is included in this test method in addition to a single-ring permeameter. The dual-ring permeameter allows for minimizing potential adverse effects of sidewall leakage on measured hydraulic conductivity of the test specimens. The use of a bottom plate with an inner ring with a diameter smaller than the diameter of the permeameter and two outflow ports (one from the inner ring, one from the annular space between the inner ring and the permeameter) allows for separating the flow from the central part of the test specimen from the flow near the sidewall of the permeameter.
4.4 Darcy's law is assumed to be valid, flow is assumed to be laminar (Reynolds number less than approximately 2000–3000), and the hydraulic conductivity is assumed to be essentially independent of hydraulic gradient. The validity of Darcy's law may be evaluated by measuring the hydraulic conductivity of a specimen at three hydraulic gradients. The discharge velocity (v = k × i) is plotted against the applied hydraulic gradient. If the resulting relationship is linear and the measured hydraulic conductivity values are similar (i.e., within 25 %), then Darcy’s law may be taken as valid.
Note 1: The quality of the result produced by this standard is dependent of the competence of the personnel using this standard and the suitability of the equipment and facilities. Agencies that meet the criteria of Practice are generally considered capable of competent and objective testing/sampling/inspection/etc. Users of this standard are cautioned that compliance with Practice does not in itself assure reliable results. Reliable results depend on many factors; Practice provides a means of evaluating some of these factors.
1.1 This test method covers laboratory measurement of the hydraulic conductivity (also referred to as coefficient of permeability) of water-saturated samples obtained from materials derived from scrap tires using a rigid-wall permeameter. The scrap tire materials covered in this method include tire chips, tire shreds, and tire derived aggregate (TDA) as described in Practice with particle sizes ranging from approximately 12 to 305 mm. Whole scrap tires are not included in this standard. A clear trend between hydraulic conductivity and shred size has not been established at a given vertical pressure for shreds ≥50 mm (. )
1.2 A single- or dual-ring permeameter may be used in the tests. A dual-ring permeameter may be preferred over a single-ring permeameter to take into account and prevent short-circuiting of permeant along the sidewalls of the permeameter. The effects of sidewall flow is more significant at high stresses and when the cell diameter is less than 6 times the particle size (. )
1.3 The test method is used under constant head conditions.
1.4 Water is used as the permeant with the test method.
1.5 Test Method also can be used for determination of hydraulic conductivity of materials derived from scrap tires with sizes smaller than 19 mm under constant head conditions in a rigid-wall permeameter. Method includes the use of a permeameter with a single ring.
1.6 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. Hydraulic conductivity has traditionally been expressed in cm/s in the US, even though the official SI unit for hydraulic conductivity is m/s.
1.7 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.8 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.