Significance and Use
5.1 Flexure tests on flat sandwich construction may be conducted to determine the sandwich flexural stiffness, the core shear strength, and shear modulus, or the facings’ compressive and tensile strengths. Tests to evaluate core shear strength may also be used to evaluate core-to-facing bonds.
5.2 This test method is limited to obtaining the strength and stiffness of the sandwich panel facings, and to obtaining load-deflection data for use in calculating sandwich beam flexural and shear stiffness using Standard Practice D7250/D7250M. Due to the curvature of the flexural test specimen when loaded, facesheet compression strength from this test may not be equivalent to the facesheet compression strength of sandwich structures subjected to pure edgewise (in-plane) compression.
5.3 Core shear strength and shear modulus are best determined in accordance with Test Method C273 provided bare core material is available. Test Method C393 may also be used to determine core shear strength. Standard Practice D7250/D7250M may be used to calculate the flexural and shear stiffness of sandwich beams.
5.4 This test method can be used to produce facing strength data for structural design allowables, material specifications, and research and development applications; it may also be used as a quality control test for bonded sandwich panels.
5.5 Factors that influence the facing strength and shall therefore be reported include the following: facing material, core material, adhesive material, methods of material fabrication, facing stacking sequence and overall thickness, core geometry (cell size), core density, adhesive thickness, specimen geometry, specimen preparation, specimen conditioning, environment of testing, specimen alignment, loading procedure, speed of testing, facing void content, adhesive void content, and facing volume percent reinforcement. Further, facing strength may be different between precured/bonded and co-cured facesheets of the same material.
—Concentrated forces on beams with thin facings and low density cores can produce results that are difficult to interpret, especially close to the failure point. Wider loading blocks and rubber pressure pads may assist in distributing the forces.
—To ensure that simple sandwich beam theory is valid, a good rule of thumb for the four-point bending test is the span length divided by the sandwich thickness should be greater than 20 (L/d > 20) with the ratio of facing thickness to core thickness less than 0.1 (t/c < 0.1).
1.1 This test method covers determination of facing properties of flat sandwich constructions subjected to flexure in such a manner that the applied moments produce curvature of the sandwich facing planes and result in compressive and tensile forces in the facings. Permissible core material forms include those with continuous bonding surfaces (such as balsa wood and foams) as well as those with discontinuous bonding surfaces (such as honeycomb).
1.2 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard.
1.2.1 Within the text, the inch-pound units are shown in brackets.
1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
—Alternate procedures for determining the compressive strength of unidirectional polymer matrix composites materials in a sandwich beam configuration may be found in Test Method D5467/D5467M.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
C274 Terminology of Structural Sandwich Constructions
C393 Test Method for Flexural Properties of Sandwich Constructions
D3878 Terminology for Composite Materials
D5229/D5229M Test Method for Moisture Absorption Properties and Equilibrium Conditioning of Polymer Matrix Composite Materials
D5467/D5467M Test Method for Compressive Properties of Unidirectional Polymer Matrix Composite Materials Using a Sandwich Beam
D7250/D7250M Practice for Determining Sandwich Beam Flexural and Shear Stiffness
E6 Terminology Relating to Methods of Mechanical Testing
E122 Practice for Calculating Sample Size to Estimate, With Specified Precision, the Average for a Characteristic of a Lot or Process
E177 Practice for Use of the Terms Precision and Bias in ASTM Test Methods
E251 Test Methods for Performance Characteristics of Metallic Bonded Resistance Strain Gauges
E456 Terminology Relating to Quality and Statistics
E1309 Guide for Identification of Fiber-Reinforced Polymer-Matrix Composite Materials in Databases
E1434 Guide for Recording Mechanical Test Data of Fiber-Reinforced Composite Materials in Databases
bending stress; facing modulus; facing stress; facing strength; flexural stiffness; sandwich construction; sandwich deflection;
ICS Number Code 79.060.01 (Wood-based panels in general)
ASTM International is a member of CrossRef.
Citing ASTM Standards
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