Significance and Use
4.1 This guide is intended to be used by architects, engineers, and contractors who either design or install exterior stone cladding for architectural structures.
4.2 This guide is an industry standard for engineering design considerations, documentation, material considerations, anchor type applications, and installation workmanship to assist designers and installers to achieve a proper and durable stone cladding.
4.3 Stone and its support systems are part of a building's skin and shall be compatible with the behavior and performance of other interfacing systems, such as the curtainwall and superstructure frame.
4.3.1 Every stone work application shall comply with applicable building codes.
4.3.2 It is not the intent of this Guide to supercede published recommendations for specific stone types. Provisions of other dimension stone industry publications should be reviewed and considered in addition to this Guide's recommendations. All industry information should be considered with respect to project specifications and requirements. If provisions of such publications differ from those in this Guide, it is acceptable practice to follow the publication's provisions if recommended by the stone specialist defined in 4.4 for the specific conditions of the individual project.
4.3.3 Because stone properties vary, the range and variability of pertinent properties of the stone proposed for use should be determined by testing and statistical methods that are evaluated using sound engineering principles. Use recent test data where applicable. Always reference proven performance of relevant existing structures.
4.3.4 Changes in properties over time shall be considered.
4.3.5 Overall behaviors of all building systems and components including the stone shall be interactively compatible.
4.4 Stone Specialist—Some conditions require professional expertise to select and plan a proper anchoring system, establish appropriate testing requirements, interpret tests, design and engineer the anchoring system, or monitor its fabrication and installation. A specialist is a person that complements the capabilities of the project team by contributing specific expert experience with the use, selection, design, and installation of dimension stone.
4.4.1 Particular conditions where special expertise is suggested to achieve a reliable installation:
184.108.40.206 Where complex connections or anchoring methods of unknown or questionable performance records are likely to be considered or specified;
220.127.116.11 Where the performance record of the specified systems and materials is not known or questionable;
18.104.22.168 When multiple cladding materials occur on the same facade;
22.214.171.124 If the supporting structure or backup is more flexible than L/600 in any direction;
126.96.36.199 If extreme loading could be caused by seismic, hurricane, tornado, or installation and handling methods;
188.8.131.52 When special building code requirements prevail.
184.108.40.206 If provisions of stone industry publications or project specifications differ from this guide.
1.1 This guide covers the categories of anchors and anchoring systems and discusses the design principles to be considered in selecting anchors or systems that will resist gravity loads and applied loads.
1.2 This guide sets forth basic requirements for the design of stone anchorage and provides a practical checklist of those design considerations.
1.3 This guide pertains to:
1.3.1 The anchoring of stone panels directly to the building structure for support,
1.3.2 The anchoring of stone panels to subframes or to curtainwall components after these support systems are attached to the building structure,
1.3.3 The anchoring of stone panels to subframes or to curtainwall components with stone cladding preassembled before these support systems are attached to the building structure, and
1.3.4 The supervision and inspection of fabrication and installation of the above.
1.4 Observe all applicable regulations, specific recommendations of the manufacturers, and standards governing interfacing work.
1.5 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard.
TABLE 1 Dimension Stone Specifications
TABLE 2 Dimension Stone Test Methods
ASTM Test Method
liquid porosity and relative density
combined shear with tensile unit strength from bending
ultimate crushing unit strength
primary tensile unit strength from bending
capacity and deflections of panels assembled with their anchors onto their supporting backup structure
individual anchor strength
accelerated production of service life
FIG. 1 Dowel Anchor
FIG. 2 Kerf Anchor
FIG. 3 Rod and Plug Anchor
FIG. 4 Adhesive Embedded Threaded Anchor
FIG. 5 Point Loading Prevention
FIG. 5 Point Loading Prevention (continued)
FIG. 6 Disc Anchor
FIG. 7 Combined Anchor
1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. (See Tables 1 and 2.)
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
C97 Test Methods for Absorption and Bulk Specific Gravity of Dimension Stone
C99 Test Method for Modulus of Rupture of Dimension Stone
C119 Terminology Relating to Dimension Stone
C170 Test Method for Compressive Strength of Dimension Stone
C406 Specification for Roofing Slate
C482 Test Method for Bond Strength of Ceramic Tile to Portland Cement Paste
C503 Specification for Marble Dimension Stone
C568 Specification for Limestone Dimension Stone
C615 Specification for Granite Dimension Stone
C616 Specification for Quartz-Based Dimension Stone
C629 Specification for Slate Dimension Stone
C880 Test Method for Flexural Strength of Dimension Stone
C1193 Guide for Use of Joint Sealants
C1201 Test Method for Structural Performance of Exterior Dimension Stone Cladding Systems by Uniform Static Air Pressure Difference
C1354 Test Method for Strength of Individual Stone Anchorages in Dimension Stone
C1496 Guide for Assessment and Maintenance of Exterior Dimension Stone Masonry Walls and Facades
C1526 Specification for Serpentine Dimension Stone
C1527 Specification for Travertine Dimension Stone
E632 Practice for Developing Accelerated Tests to Aid Prediction of the Service Life of Building Components and Materials
anchor types; backup; consultants; design considerations; design process; exemplar; joints; materials of construction; stone anchors; stone installation; stone testing; water infiltration;
ICS Number Code 93.020 (Earth works. Excavations. Foundation construction. Underground works)
ASTM International is a member of CrossRef.
Citing ASTM Standards
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