Significance and Use
4.1 This guide is intended to be used by architects, engineers, and contractors who either design or install exterior stone cladding for architectural structures.
4.2 This guide is an industry standard for engineering design considerations, documentation, material considerations, anchor type applications, and installation workmanship to assist designers and installers to achieve a proper and durable stone cladding.
4.3 Stone and its support systems are part of a building's skin and shall be compatible with the behavior and performance of other interfacing systems, such as the curtainwall and superstructure frame.
4.3.1 Every stone work application shall comply with applicable building codes.
4.3.2 It is not the intent of this Guide to supersede published recommendations for specific stone types. Provisions of other dimension stone industry publications should be reviewed and considered in addition to this Guide's recommendations. All industry information should be considered with respect to project specifications and requirements. If provisions of such publications differ from those in this Guide, it is acceptable practice to follow the publication's provisions if recommended by the stone specialist defined in for the specific conditions of the individual project.
4.3.3 Because stone properties vary, the range and variability of pertinent properties of the stone proposed for use should be determined by testing and statistical methods that are evaluated using sound engineering principles. Use recent test data where applicable. Always reference proven performance of relevant existing structures.
4.3.4 Changes in properties over time shall be considered.
4.3.5 Overall behaviors of all building systems and components including the stone shall be interactively compatible.
4.4 Stone Specialist—Some conditions require professional expertise to select and plan a proper anchoring system, establish appropriate testing requirements, interpret tests, design and engineer the anchoring system, or monitor its fabrication and installation. A specialist is a person that complements the capabilities of the project team by contributing specific expert experience with the use, selection, design, and installation of dimension stone.
4.4.1 Particular conditions where special expertise is suggested to achieve a reliable installation:
188.8.131.52 Where complex connections or anchoring methods of unknown or questionable performance records are likely to be considered or specified;
184.108.40.206 Where the performance record of the specified systems and materials is not known or questionable;
220.127.116.11 When multiple cladding materials occur on the same facade;
18.104.22.168 If the supporting structure or backup is more flexible than L/600 in any direction;
22.214.171.124 If extreme loading could be caused by seismic, hurricane, tornado, or installation and handling methods;
126.96.36.199 When special building code requirements prevail.
188.8.131.52 If provisions of stone industry publications or project specifications differ from this guide.
1.1 This guide covers the categories of anchors and anchoring systems and discusses the design principles to be considered in selecting anchors or systems that will resist gravity loads and applied loads.
1.2 This guide sets forth basic requirements for the design of stone anchorage and provides a practical checklist of those design considerations.
1.3 This guide pertains to:
1.3.1 The anchoring of stone panels directly to the building structure for support,
1.3.2 The anchoring of stone panels to subframes or to curtainwall components after these support systems are attached to the building structure,
1.3.3 The anchoring of stone panels to subframes or to curtainwall components with stone cladding preassembled before these support systems are attached to the building structure, and
1.3.4 The supervision and inspection of fabrication and installation of the above.
1.4 Observe all applicable regulations, specific recommendations of the manufacturers, and standards governing interfacing work.
1.5 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard.
FIG. 1 Rod and Plug Anchor
FIG. 2 Adhesive Embedded Threaded Anchor
FIG. 3 Point Loading Prevention
FIG. 3 Point Loading Prevention (continued)
FIG. 4 Disc Anchor
FIG. 5 Combined Anchor
1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. (See .)
1.7 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.