Published: Jan 1979
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A maze of rules—federal, state, county, or city statutes, plus regulations by the Department of Transportation (DOT), Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), American Petroleum Institute (API), National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), and the U.S. Coast Guard—affect Jet A fuel; any major change such as flash point reduction can have far-reaching impact. Comparing international flammability classifications, only the United States and Sweden would re-classify reduced flash point kerosine from “combustible” (flash point >38°C (100°F) to “flammable” (flash point >27°C <38°C). Among states, 36 have flash point minimums affecting kerosine and other distillates but none regulate jet fuel; if states classified Jet A/A-1 as kerosine, potential conflicts could result at lower flash points than 38°C (100°F).
Shipment regulations of the Federal Code, Civil Aeronautics Board (CAB), International Air Transport Association (IATA), and DOT provide different containers, packing, marking, etc. for Class II combustible versus Class IC flammable liquids for different modes of transport. Tank storage regulations as specified by OSHA (Standard 1910.106) and NFPA, Codes 30, 70 and 407 are similar. Conservation vents or vapor recovery systems on storage tanks might be required in certain states with reduced flash point jet fuel. The downward shift in the flammability zone with lower flash jet fuel suggests that “switch-loading” regulations should apply. NFPA Code 385 describes these procedures.
In certain parts of the world, jet fuel is also used for home heating or cooking. A reduced flash point jet fuel would probably be too hazardous as a dual-purpose kerosine, and changes in supply and distribution systems would be needed. A comprehensive investigation of each country, region, state, city, and industry is needed to assess the worldwide impact of reduced flash jet fuel.
flammability classification, Class IC flammable liquid, Class II combustible liquid, state inspection laws, federal codes, CAB restricted articles tariff, IATA restricted articles regulations, DOT hazardous materials, regulations, containers, storage venting and vapor recovery switch loading operations, NFPA codes
Senior research engineer, Mobil Research and Development Company, Paulsboro, N.J.