STP719

    Residential Air Pollution Levels: Observation and Data Interpretation

    Published: Jan 1980


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    Abstract

    A program to characterize the air quality in the residential environment has been undertaken. The generation of the data base, the interpretation of the data, and the formulation and application of an indoor-outdoor numerical model will be discussed.

    Pollutant concentrations are sampled in three indoor locations and one outdoor location. “Instantaneous” readings are obtained for carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone O3, sulfur dioxide (SO2), total hydrocarbons (THC), methane (CH4), and carbon dioxide (CO2); 24-h averages are monitored for total suspended particulate (TSP) and respirable suspended particulate (RSP) matter, sulfates, nitrates, lead and organics; aldehydes are sampled on a 4-h basis. In addition, the meteorological conditions both indoors and outdoors are measured, and the air exchange rate of each residence is experimentally determined. Elemental analysis is performed by proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Finally, the kilowatt hours for heating, cooking and alternate current; the furnace efficiency; structural specifications; and other energy parameters are measured. The objective of this project is to develop causal relationships between the energy conservation measures-indoor (residential) air pollution concentrations and health effects.

    Data analysis shows that the national ambient standards have been violated in the indoor residential environment for two pollutants, ozone and nonmethane hydrocarbons. Additionally, the American Society for Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers' (ASHRAE) recommended indoor air pollution standards are violated by the following pollutants: carbon dioxide, total suspended particulate matter, and aldehydes.

    A numerical model relating indoor and outdoor air pollution levels has been developed for the project. The model has been validated with the large data base sampled in the field studies. A series of numerical simulations indicate that under certain conditions energy conserving measures will increase the indoor air pollution levels.

    Keywords:

    residential air pollution, energy conservation, numerical simulations, air infiltration, measurements


    Author Information:

    Moschandreas, DJ
    Director, Environmental Sciences, research associate, research assistant, and research assistant, GEOMET, Inc., Gaithersburg, Md.

    Stark, JWC
    Director, Environmental Sciences, research associate, research assistant, and research assistant, GEOMET, Inc., Gaithersburg, Md.

    McFadden, JE
    Director, Environmental Sciences, research associate, research assistant, and research assistant, GEOMET, Inc., Gaithersburg, Md.

    Morse, SS
    Director, Environmental Sciences, research associate, research assistant, and research assistant, GEOMET, Inc., Gaithersburg, Md.


    Paper ID: STP27530S

    Committee/Subcommittee: E06.41

    DOI: 10.1520/STP27530S


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