Journal Published Online: 26 January 2024
Volume 13, Issue 2

Fatigue Crack Growth on Several Materials under Single-Spike Overloads and Aircraft Spectra during Constraint-Loss Behavior



The phenomenon of flat-to-slant crack growth has been studied by many in the fracture mechanics community. At low stress-intensity factors, a fatigue-crack surface is flat (tensile mode) and the crack-front region is under plane-strain conditions (high constraint). As the crack grows with higher stress-intensity factors, a 45° shear lip occurs through the thickness of the sheet or plate. This behavior is the shear mode, which is under low constraint or plane-stress conditions. In 1966, Schijve found that the transition from flat-to-slant crack growth on a 2024-T3 Alclad aluminum alloy over a wide range in stress ratios (R) occurred at a “constant” crack-growth rate. Also, Newman and Hudson showed the same behavior on 7075-Temper-6 and Ti–8Al–1Mo–1V alloys, validating Schijve’s observation that crack-growth rate was the key parameter for flat-to-slant crack-growth behavior. The materials considered herein are 2024-T3, 7075-T6, and 9310 steel. Crack-growth behavior during single-spike overloads and simulated aircraft spectrum loading are presented. The fatigue structural analysis (FASTRAN) crack-closure based life-prediction code was used to correlate the constant-amplitude (CA) crack-growth-rate data over a wide range in stress ratios (R = Smin/Smax) and rates from threshold to near fracture, and to calculate or predict the crack-growth behavior on single-spike overload tests. Crack-closure behavior is strongly dependent upon the level of constraint. The main objective was to see if the constraint-loss region is the primary reason for crack-growth delays after single-spike overloads. Also, crack-growth analyses are presented on tests that were conducted by Wanhill on 2024-T3 Alclad aluminum alloy under the transport wing standard (TWIST) spectrum. Crack-growth analyses using crack-closure theory without constraint loss was “unable” to predict crack growth under spike overloads or simulated aircraft spectra. However, predicted crack length against cycles with constraint-loss behavior compared reasonably well with all tests.

Author Information

Newman, James C.
Department of Aerospace Engineering, Mississippi State University, MS, USA
Walker, Kevin F.
QinetiQ, Ltd., Senior Principal Engineer, South Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
Pages: 17
Price: $25.00
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Stock #: MPC20230074
ISSN: 2379-1365
DOI: 10.1520/MPC20230074