ASTM Practice for Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedure) (D 2488) was significantly revised in 1984. Revisions were made to parallel the recent changes in ASTM Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes (D 2487) and to reflect more of current practices used for visual-manual description and identification. Where possible, the number of terms for descriptive information (dry strength, moisture condition, and so forth) was reduced, and the criteria for deciding which term to use were made less subjective. Criteria for describing particle shape and for describing cementation of coarse-grained soils were added. Appendixes give example written descriptions, procedures for estimating particle size distribution, and guidelines for using the system for materials such as shale, mudstone, crushed rock, and slag.
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