Temperature Measurement Standards

    ASTM's temperature measurement standards provide the material and property specifications, as well as guides for the testing, calibration, and use of laboratory, industrial, and clinical instruments used in the determination of thermal variables, particularly temperature. These include thermoelement materials, hydrometers, liquid-in-glass thermometers, thermocouples, resistance thermometers, and thermistor sensors. These instruments quantify thermal parameters by measuring some physical property of a working material that varies with temperature. They are then calibrated either by comparing their results with that of certified thermometers, or by checking them against known fixed points on the temperature scale. These temperature measurement standards are useful to medical and industrial supplies manufacturers, laboratories, and other producers and users of such thermal instruments in helping them fabricate quality equipments towards their safe and accurate utilisation.

    List of temperature measurement standards developed by ASTM:

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    Digital Contact Thermometers

    E2877 - 12(2019) Standard Guide for Digital Contact Thermometers

    Editorial and Terminology

    E344 - 20 Terminology Relating to Thermometry and Hydrometry
    E1594 - 16 Standard Guide for Expression of Temperature

    Fundamentals in Thermometry

    E563 - 11(2016) Standard Practice for Preparation and Use of an Ice-Point Bath as a Reference Temperature
    E1502 - 16 Standard Guide for Use of Fixed-Point Cells for Reference Temperatures
    E1750 - 10(2016) Standard Guide for Use of Water Triple Point Cells
    E2488 - 09(2014) Standard Guide for the Preparation and Evaluation of Liquid Baths Used for Temperature Calibration by Comparison
    E2623 - 14 Standard Practice for Reporting Thermometer Calibrations
    E3186 - 19 Standard Guide for Use and Testing of Dry-Block Temperature Calibrators

    Liquid-in-Glass Thermometers and Hydrometers

    E1 - 14(2020) Standard Specification for ASTM Liquid-in-Glass Thermometers
    E77 - 14(2021) Standard Test Method for Inspection and Verification of Thermometers
    E100 - 19 Standard Specification for ASTM Hydrometers
    E126 - 19 Standard Test Method for Inspection, Calibration, and Verification of ASTM Hydrometers
    E2251 - 14 Standard Specification for Liquid-in-Glass ASTM Thermometers with Low-Hazard Precision Liquids
    E2995 - 15a(2020) Standard Specification for ASTM Thermohydrometers with Integral Low-Hazard Thermometers

    Radiation Thermometry

    E1256 - 17 Standard Test Methods for Radiation Thermometers (Single Waveband Type)
    E2758 - 15a(2021) Standard Guide for Selection and Use of Wideband, Low Temperature Infrared Thermometers
    E2847 - 14 Standard Test Method for Calibration and Accuracy Verification of Wideband Infrared Thermometers

    Resistance Thermometers

    E644 - 11(2019) Standard Test Methods for Testing Industrial Resistance Thermometers
    E879 - 20 Standard Specification for Thermistor Sensors for General Purpose and Laboratory Temperature Measurements
    E1137 / E1137M - 08(2020) Standard Specification for Industrial Platinum Resistance Thermometers
    E2593 - 17 Standard Guide for Accuracy Verification of Industrial Platinum Resistance Thermometers
    E2821 - 20 Standard Specification for Compacted Mineral-Insulated, Metal-Sheathed Cable Used in Industrial Resistance Thermometers

    Thermocouples - Calibration

    E207 - 21 Standard Test Method for Thermal EMF Test of Single Thermoelement Materials by Comparison With Reference Thermoelement of Similar EMF-Temperature Properties
    E220 - 19 Standard Test Method for Calibration of Thermocouples By Comparison Techniques
    E230 / E230M - 17 Standard Specification for Temperature-Electromotive Force (emf) Tables for Standardized Thermocouples
    E452 - 02(2018) Standard Test Method for Calibration of Refractory Metal Thermocouples Using a Radiation Thermometer
    E601 - 20 Standard Guide for Measuring Electromotive Force (EMF) Stability of Base-Metal Thermoelement Materials With Time in Air
    E1751 / E1751M - 20 Standard Guide for Temperature Electromotive Force (emf) Tables for Non-Letter Designated Thermocouple Combinations

    Thermocouples - Materials and Accessories Specifications

    E696 - 07(2018) Standard Specification for Tungsten-Rhenium Alloy Thermocouple Wire
    E1129 / E1129M - 19 Standard Specification for Thermocouple Connectors
    E1159 - 15(2020)e1 Standard Specification for Thermocouple Materials, Platinum-Rhodium Alloys, and Platinum
    E1652 - 15 Standard Specification for Magnesium Oxide and Aluminum Oxide Powder and Crushable Insulators Used in the Manufacture of Base Metal Thermocouples, Metal-Sheathed Platinum Resistance Thermometers, and Noble Metal Thermocouples
    E1684 / E1684M - 19 Standard Specification for Miniature Thermocouple Connectors
    E2820 - 13(2019) Standard Test Method for Evaluating Thermal EMF Properties of Base-Metal Thermocouple Connectors

    Thermocouples - Specifications

    E235 / E235M - 19 Standard Specification for Type K and Type N Mineral-Insulated, Metal-Sheathed Thermocouples for Nuclear or for Other High-Reliability Applications
    E574 - 19 Standard Specification for Duplex, Base Metal Thermocouple Wire With Glass Fiber or Silica Fiber Insulation
    E585 / E585M - 18 Standard Specification for Compacted Mineral-Insulated, Metal-Sheathed, Base Metal Thermocouple Cable
    E608 / E608M - 13(2019) Standard Specification for Mineral-Insulated, Metal-Sheathed Base Metal Thermocouples
    E2181 / E2181M - 19 Standard Specification for Compacted Mineral-Insulated, Metal-Sheathed, Noble Metal Thermocouples and Thermocouple Cable

    Thermocouples - Testing

    E780 - 17 Standard Test Method for Measuring the Insulation Resistance of Mineral-Insulated, Metal-Sheathed Thermocouples and Mineral-Insulated, Metal-Sheathed Cable at Room Temperature
    E839 - 11(2016)e1 Standard Test Methods for Sheathed Thermocouples and Sheathed Thermocouple Cable
    E1350 - 18 Standard Guide for Testing Sheathed Thermocouples, Thermocouple Assemblies, and Connecting Wires Prior to, and After Installation or Service
    E2730 - 21 Standard Guide for Calibration and Use of Thermocouple Reference Junction Probes in Evaluation of Electronic Reference Junction Compensation Circuits
    E2846 - 20 Standard Guide for Thermocouple Verification

    Other standards developed by ASTM committees:

    3D Imaging Standards

    Additive Manufacturing Standards

    Adhesive Standards

    Aerospace Material Standards

    Analytical Chemistry Standards

    Asset Management Standards

    Atmospheric Analysis Standards

    Biotechnology Standards

    Construction Standards

    Business Copy Product Standards

    Carbon Standards

    Catalyst Standards

    Cement Standards and Concrete Standards

    Coal Standards and Gas Standards

    Composite Standards

    Computerized System Standards

    Consumer Product Evaluation Standards

    Copper Standards

    Corrosion Standards and Wear Standards

    Durability of Nonmetallic Material Standards

    Electrical Insulating Material Standards

    Electrical Standards and Magnetic Conductor Standards

    Electronics Standards

    Environmental Standards

    Fastener Standards

    Fatigue Standards and Fracture Standards

    Fire Standards and Flammability Standards

    Forensic Science Standards

    Geotechnical Engineering Standards

    Glass Standards and Ceramic Standards

    Industrial Chemical Standards

    Industrial Hygiene Standards and Safety Standards

    Laboratory Testing Standards

    Leather Standards

    Masonry Standards

    Medical Device Standards and Implant Standards