ASTM E2938 - 15

    Standard Test Method for Evaluating the Relative-Range Measurement Performance of 3D Imaging Systems in the Medium Range

    Active Standard ASTM E2938 | Developed by Subcommittee: E57.02

    Book of Standards Volume: 10.04


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    Significance and Use

    4.1 This standard provides a test method for obtaining the range error for medium-range 3D imaging systems. The results from this test method may be used to evaluate or to verify the range measurement performance of medium-range 3D imaging systems. The results from this test method may also be used to compare performance among different instruments.

    4.2 The range performance of the IUT obtained by the application of this test method may be different from the range performance of the IUT under some real-world conditions. For example, object geometry, texture, temperature and reflectance as well as vibrations, particulate matter, thermal gradients, ambient lighting, and wind in the environment will affect the range performance.

    4.3 The test may be carried out for instrument acceptance, warranty or contractual purposes by mutual agreement between the manufacturer and the user. The IUT is tested in accordance with manufacturer-supplied specifications, rated conditions, and technical documentation. This test may be repeated for any target 2 range within the manufacturer’s specifications and for any rated conditions.

    4.4 For the purposes of understanding the behavior of the IUT and without warranty implications, this test may be modified as necessary to characterize the range measurement performance of the IUT outside the manufacturer’s rated conditions, but within the manufacturer’s limiting conditions.

    4.5 The manufacturer may provide different values for the specifications for different sets of rated conditions, for example, better range measurement performance might be specified under a set of more restrictively rated environmental conditions. The user is advised that the IUT’s performance may differ significantly in other modes of operation or outside the rated conditions and should inquire with the manufacturer for specifications of the mode that best represents the planned usage. If a target other than that described in Section 7, or if procedures other than those described in Section 8 are used, additional analysis not covered in this test method may be required.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This standard describes a quantitative test method for evaluating the range measurement performance of laser-based, scanning, time-of-flight, 3D imaging systems in the medium range. The term “medium range” refers to systems that are capable of operating within at least a portion of ranges from 2 to 150 m. The term “time-of-flight systems” includes phase-based, pulsed, and chirped systems. The word “standard” in this document refers to a documentary standard as per Terminology E284. This test method only applies to 3D imaging systems that are capable of producing a point cloud representation of a measured target.

    1.1.1 As defined in Terminology E2544, a range is the distance measured from the origin of a 3D imaging system to a point in space. This range is often referred to as an absolute range. However, since the origin of many 3D imaging systems is either unknown or not readily measurable, a test method for absolute range performance is not feasible for these systems. Therefore, in this test method, the range is taken to be the distance between two points in space on a line that passes through the origin of the 3D imaging system. Although the error in the calculated distance between these two points is a relative-range error, in this test method when the term range error is used it refers to the relative-range error. This test method cannot be used to quantify the constant offset error component of the range error.

    1.1.2 This test method recommends that the first point be at the manufacturer-specified target 1 range and requires that the second target be on the same side of the instrument under test (IUT) as the first target. Specification of target 1 range by the manufacturer minimizes the contribution to the relative range measurement error from the target 1 range measurement.

    1.1.3 This test method may be used once to evaluate the IUT for a given set of conditions or it may be used multiple times to better assess the performance of the IUT for various conditions (for example, additional ranges, various reflectances, environmental conditions).

    1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. SI units are used for all calculations and results in this standard.

    1.3 The method described in this standard is not intended to replace more in-depth methods used for instrument calibration or compensation, and specific measurement applications may require other tests and analyses.

    1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

    Some aspects of the safe use of 3D Imaging Systems are discussed in Practice ASTM E2641.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    E284 Terminology of Appearance

    E1164 Practice for Obtaining Spectrometric Data for Object-Color Evaluation

    E1331 Test Method for Reflectance Factor and Color by Spectrophotometry Using Hemispherical Geometry

    E2544 Terminology for Three-Dimensional (3D) Imaging Systems

    E2641 Practice for Best Practices for Safe Application of 3D Imaging Technology

    ASME Standards

    ASME B89.1.9-2002 Gage Blocks

    ASME B89.4.19-2006 Performance Evaluation of Laser-Based Spherical Coordinate Measurement Systems

    ASME B89.7.2-1999 Dimensional Measurement Planning


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 35.140 (Computer graphics)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 41115307(Lasers)


    Referencing This Standard
    Link Here
    Link to Active (This link will always route to the current Active version of the standard.)

    DOI: 10.1520/E2938-15

    Citation Format

    ASTM E2938-15, Standard Test Method for Evaluating the Relative-Range Measurement Performance of 3D Imaging Systems in the Medium Range, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2015, www.astm.org

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