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    ASTM E2112 - 19c

    Standard Practice for Installation of Exterior Windows, Doors and Skylights

    Active Standard ASTM E2112 | Developed by Subcommittee: E06.51

    Book of Standards Volume: 04.11

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    Significance and Use

    4.1 This practice recognizes that the effective performance of installed fenestration products is dependent in part upon following proper installation procedures and appropriate workmanship.

    4.2 This practice recognizes that the coordination of trades and proper sequencing are essential for effective fenestration installation. The general contractor shall be responsible for the necessary coordination of trades and proper construction sequencing of the installed fenestration product.

    4.3 Improper installation of units contributes to excessive air, water and sound leakage, and condensation. It may promote the deterioration of wall constructions, insulation, fenestration products, and their respective finishes.

    4.4 This practice presumes a working knowledge of applicable federal, state, and local codes and regulations; specifically, but not limited to required means of egress, requirements for safety glazing materials, and structural requirements of applicable codes.

    4.5 This practice presumes a working knowledge of the tools, equipment, and methods necessary for the installation of specified fenestration products. It further assumes familiarity with flashing and sealing, glazing procedures, finishes where applicable, and an understanding of the fundamentals of construction that affect the installation of these units.

    4.6 This practice presumes that the products that have been furnished for the installation and their locations within the structure comply with all the applicable building codes and regulations.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This practice covers the installation of fenestration products in new and existing construction. For the purpose of this practice, fenestration products shall be limited to windows, sliding patio-type doors, swinging patio type doors, and skylights, as used primarily in residential and light commercial buildings.

    1.2 This practice assumes that the installer possesses basic woodworking skills and an understanding of wall and roof construction, sheet metal work, and joint sealant practices.

    1.3 This practice attempts to instruct and familiarize the installer with the concepts of both Barrier Systems and Membrane/Drainage Systems, in order to ensure the continuity of the building envelope. This practice attempts to educate the installer, builder, architect, and other users in the identification and understanding of the water shedding system of the building envelope.

    1.4 This practice covers the installation process from pre-installation procedures through post-installation procedures, for single units or factory-mulled multiple units in a single opening. It does not cover the fabrication or assembly of multiple units, whether such fabrication takes place in a factory or at the intended installation site. The installer should check with the manufacturer of factory-assembled units for instructions for anchoring. When using field-mulled units, follow manufacturer's recommendations and make certain that they meet applicable codes. This practice does not cover the selection of appropriate fenestration products for a given application, nor the selection of other products or systems for use in the installation.

    1.5 This practice provides minimum requirements that will help to accomplish the installation of fenestration products in an effective manner. Actual conditions in buildings vary greatly and, in some cases, substantial additional precautions may be required. In the event that the manufacturer's installation instructions provided with the product conflict with requirements of this practice, the manufacturer's instructions shall prevail. This practice is not intended to limit or exclude other new procedures that may refine or further improve the effectiveness of fenestration installation.

    1.5.1 This practice is intended to be used for background information in order to develop training manuals and training programs. Further, this practice attempts to consolidate and unify the various steps of construction, tying together the various trades involved with the continuity between fenestration products and the building envelope.

    1.6 The text of this practice references notes and footnotes that provide explanatory material. These notes and footnotes (excluding those in tables and figures) shall not be considered as requirements of this practice.

    1.7 This standard has not been created to address all issues related to every possible installation situation one might experience in the field. Furthermore, this practice does not purport to provide fail-safe installation methods, assurance or protection against installation deficiencies, or a standard by which architects can specify or ensure delivered performance.

    Note 1: There are no ISO standards covering the primary subject matter of this practice.

    1.8 Design Professional—This practice is not intended to limit the role and authority of a registered design professional to select a method of installation or to change, modify, or develop other methods of installation to meet the specific requirements of a building project for a particular location. A design professional retains the authority to prepare construction documents indicating window/door/skylight installations integrated with the water-resistive barrier (WRB).

    1.9 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard.

    1.10 This practice does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific precautionary statements, see Section 5, Related Procedures. Where a lead hazard is known or suspected, refer to ASTM Standards on Lead Hazards Associated with Buildings and to applicable state and federal regulations. Where an asbestos hazard is known or suspected, refer to the ASTM Manual on Asbestos Control, and to applicable state and federal regulations.

    1.11 Table of Contents:






     Table of Contents


    Referenced Documents






     Description of Terms Specific to this Standard




    Significance and Use


    Related Issues and Procedures


     Continuity with the Weather Barrier Systems


     Joints and Anchorages


     Moisture Entrapment


     Water-Resistive Barrier




     Construction Sequence


     Construction Damage




     Rough Opening


      Rough Opening Size


      Insulating or Filling the Rough Opening Gap


     Materials Protection


     Cleaning and Maintenance


     Dissimilar Materials


     Flashing Requirements


     Fastening Systems/Anchorage




     Pan Flashing Systems and Subsills for Weatherability


     Pre-Installation Procedures


     Sealants—Selection and Use


     Window Cleaner Anchors and Related Safety


    Continuity Between the Fenestration Products and
     Other Components of the Building Envelope


    Water Shedding Strategies of Wall and Roof Systems


     Concept of Surface Barrier Systems and
      Membrane/Drainage Systems


      Surface Barrier Systems


      Membrane/Drainage Systems


     Identification of Systems


    Installation Methods For Windows


     Windows in Walls Utilizing a Membrane/Drainage


      Windows with Perimeter Mounting Flanges
       (Nail Fins) in Drainage Type Wall Construction


       Flange Types

       Selection of Installation Method

        Method A

        Method B

        Method A1

        Method B1

      Non-Finned Windows in Membrane/Drainage
       Type Walls


     Windows in Walls Utilizing a Barrier Wall System
      (Sealant Method)


     Windows in Walls Utilizing an Exterior Barrier System
      (EIFS or Direct Applied)


     Alternative Approved Installation Methods for the
      Installation of Windows


      Extreme Wind/Water Conditions


       Membrane Drainage Wood Frame Construction

       Masonry Construction with Surface Barrier
        Stucco Facade

     Special Considerations


      Aluminum Framed Windows


      Vinyl Framed Windows


     Replacement Window Installation


      Partial Window Replacement for Existing Integral
       Flange Windows


      Partial Replacement of Mill Shop Wood Windows


       “Mill Shop” Wood Windows (Vertical or Horizontal

      Complete Window Replacement


       Destructive Window Replacement (Fin Type)

       Non-Destructive Window Replacement
        (Non-Fin Type)

    Installation Methods for Doors


     Doors in Walls Utilizing a Membrane/Drainage System


      Doors with Perimeter Mounting Flanges
       (Nailing Fins) in Drainage Type Wall


       Flange Types

       Selection of Installation Method

        Method A

        Method B

        Method A1

        Method B1

      Hinged Swing (Non-finned) Doors in Membrane/
       Drainage Type Walls


    Installation Methods for Skylights


     Product Types


     Flashing Procedures


     Aluminum/Copper Sheet Flashing


     Aluminum/Copper Step Flashing (Fabricated or


     Membrane Flashing


    Post-Installation Procedures




    Air Barrier Foam Sealant Used in the Rough
     Opening Gap

    Annex A1

    Emergency Escape and Rescue Requirements

    Annex A2

    Minimum Height Requirements for Interior Height of
     Pan Flashing

    Annex A3


    Annex A4

    Window/Door Flashing Types

    Appendix X1

    Cautions for Installation

    Appendix X2

    Other Referenced Installation Guides

    Appendix X3

    Alternate Installation Methods

    Appendix X4

    1.12 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.

    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    A123/A123M Specification for Zinc (Hot-Dip Galvanized) Coatings on Iron and Steel Products

    B456 Specification for Electrodeposited Coatings of Copper Plus Nickel Plus Chromium and Nickel Plus Chromium

    B663/B663M Specification for Silver-Tungsten Carbide Electrical Contact Material

    B766 Specification for Electrodeposited Coatings of Cadmium

    C717 Terminology of Building Seals and Sealants

    C755 Practice for Selection of Water Vapor Retarders for Thermal Insulation

    C794 Test Method for Adhesion-in-Peel of Elastomeric Joint Sealants

    C834 Specification for Latex Sealants

    C920 Specification for Elastomeric Joint Sealants

    C1085 Specification for Butyl Rubber Based Solvent-Release Sealants

    C1193 Guide for Use of Joint Sealants

    C1281 Specification for Preformed Tape Sealants for Glazing Applications

    C1299 Guide for Use in Selection of Liquid-Applied Sealants

    C1311 Specification for Solvent Release Sealants

    C1382 Test Method for Determining Tensile Adhesion Properties of Sealants When Used in Exterior Insulation and Finish Systems (EIFS) Joints

    C1397 Practice for Application of Class PB Exterior Insulation and Finish Systems (EIFS) and EIFS with Drainage

    D779 Test Method for Determining the Water Vapor Resistance of Sheet Materials in Contact with Liquid Water by the Dry Indicator Method

    D1970/D1970M Specification for Self-Adhering Polymer Modified Bituminous Sheet Materials Used as Steep Roofing Underlayment for Ice Dam Protection

    D2822/D2822M Specification for Asphalt Roof Cement, Asbestos-Containing

    E283 Test Method for Determining Rate of Air Leakage Through Exterior Windows, Skylights, Curtain Walls, and Doors Under Specified Pressure Differences Across the Specimen

    E331 Test Method for Water Penetration of Exterior Windows, Skylights, Doors, and Curtain Walls by Uniform Static Air Pressure Difference

    E547 Test Method for Water Penetration of Exterior Windows, Skylights, Doors, and Curtain Walls by Cyclic Static Air Pressure Difference

    E631 Terminology of Building Constructions

    E783 Test Method for Field Measurement of Air Leakage Through Installed Exterior Windows and Doors

    E1105 Test Method for Field Determination of Water Penetration of Installed Exterior Windows, Skylights, Doors, and Curtain Walls, by Uniform or Cyclic Static Air Pressure Difference

    FMA/AAMA Standards

    100 Standard Practice for the Installation of Windows with Flanges or Mounting Fins in Wood Frame Construction for Extreme Wind/Water Exposure

    200 Standard Practice for the Installation of Windows with Frontal Flanges for Surface Barrier Masonry Construction for Extreme Wind/Water Conditions

    CSA Standards

    A440-M90 WindowsA National Standard of Canada

    A440.4 Fenestration Product Installation

    CPSC Standard

    16 CFR 1201

    AAMA Standards


    713 Voluntary Test Method to Determine Chemical Compatibility of Sealants and Self-Adhered Flexible Flashings

    714 Voluntary Specification for Liquid Applied Flashing Used to Create a Water Resistive Seal around Exterior Wall Openings in Buildings

    800 Voluntary Specifications and Test Methods for Sealants

    850 Fenestration Sealants Guide Manual

    ANSI/ISDI Standard

    102 Insulated Steel Door SystemsInstallation Standard

    ANSI/ASME Standard

    A39.1 Standard, Safety Requirements for Window Cleaning

    ANSI/EIMA Standard

    99-A-200 Exterior Insulation and Finish Systems (EIFS)

    AAMA/WDMA Standard

    1600/IS7 Voluntary Specifications for Roof Windows and Skylights

    ANSI/AAMA/WDMA Standard


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 91.060.50 (Doors and windows)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 30170000(Doors and windows and glass); 95121500(Commercial and entertainment buildings and structures)

    Referencing This Standard
    Link Here
    Link to Active (This link will always route to the current Active version of the standard.)

    DOI: 10.1520/E2112-19C

    Citation Format

    ASTM E2112-19c, Standard Practice for Installation of Exterior Windows, Doors and Skylights, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2019, www.astm.org

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