ASTM D8279 - 21

    Standard Test Method for Determination of Timing-Chain Wear in a Turbocharged, Direct-Injection, Spark-Ignition, Four-Cylinder Engine

    Active Standard ASTM D8279 | Developed by Subcommittee: D02.B0

    Book of Standards Volume: 05.05

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    Significance and Use

    5.1 This test method evaluates an automotive engine oil's lubricating efficiency in inhibiting timing-chain lengthening under operating conditions selected to accelerate timing-chain wear. Varying quality reference oils of known wear performance were used in developing the operating conditions of the test procedure.

    5.2 The test method can be used to screen lubricants for satisfactory lubrication of an engine timing chain and has application in gasoline, automotive, engine-oil specifications. It is expected to be used in specifications and classifications of engine lubricating oils, such as the following:

    5.2.1 ILSAC GF-6.

    5.2.2 Specification D4485.

    5.2.3 SAE Classification J183.

    1. Scope

    1.1 Undesirable timing-chain wear has been observed with gasoline, turbocharged, direct-injection (GTDI) engines in field service, and data from correlating laboratory engine tests have shown that chain wear can be affected by appropriately formulated engine lubricating. A laboratory engine test has been developed to provide a means for screening lubricating oils for that specific purpose. The laboratory engine test is 216 h in length, conducted under varying conditions, and the increase in timing-chain length determined at the end of test is the primary result. This test method is commonly known as the Sequence X, Chain Wear (CW) Test.

    1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses after SI units are provided for information only and are not considered standard.

    1.2.1 Exception—Where there is no direct SI equivalent such as screw threads, national pipe threads/diameters, tubing size, or specified single source equipment.

    1.3 Table of Contents: 





    Referenced Documents




    Summary of Test Method


    Significance and Use




     Test Engine


    Reagents and Materials


    Preparation of Apparatus


     Timing-chain Preparation, Installation, and Measurement


     Test Stand Installation


     Electronic Throttle Controller


     Temperature Measurement


     Pressure Measurement


     Flowrate Measurement


     Blowby Flowrate


    Stand Calibration


    Test Procedure


     Pre-Test Procedure and Engine Break-In


     Engine Start-up Procedures


     Test Sequence


     Engine Shutdown Procedures


     Blowby Flowrate Measurement


     Parameter Logging


     Oil Consumption Calculation


     General Maintenance


     Special Maintenance Procedures


     Blowby Flowrate Adjustment


    Diagnostic Data Review


    Test Results




    Precision and Bias






    ASTM TMC Organization

    Annex A1

    ASTM TMC: Calibration Procedures

    Annex A2

    ASTM TMC: Maintenance Activities

    Annex A3

    ASTM TMC: Related Information

    Annex A4

    Engine and Stand Parts

    Annex A5

    Safety Precautions

    Annex A6

    Engine Rebuild Templates

    Annex A7

    Engine Build Records

    Annex A8

    Cylinder Head Build


    Cylinder Bore Measurement


    Bearing Journal Measurements


    Engine Part Photographs, Schematics and Figures

    Annex A9

    Control and Data Acquisition Requirements

    Annex A10

    Dipstick Oil Level to Charge Conversions

    Annex A11

    Sequence X Report Forms and Data Acquisition

    Annex A12



    Sources of Materials and Information

    Appendix X1

    Suggested Designs for Engine Fixing Brackets

    Appendix X2

    1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

    1.5 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.

    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D235 Specification for Mineral Spirits (Petroleum Spirits) (Hydrocarbon Dry Cleaning Solvent)

    D445 Test Method for Kinematic Viscosity of Transparent and Opaque Liquids (and Calculation of Dynamic Viscosity)

    D664 Test Method for Acid Number of Petroleum Products by Potentiometric Titration

    D4175 Terminology Relating to Petroleum Products, Liquid Fuels, and Lubricants

    D4485 Specification for Performance of Active API Service Category Engine Oils

    D4739 Test Method for Base Number Determination by Potentiometric Hydrochloric Acid Titration

    D5185 Test Method for Multielement Determination of Used and Unused Lubricating Oils and Base Oils by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES)

    D5967 Test Method for Evaluation of Diesel Engine Oils in T-8 Diesel Engine

    D6304 Test Method for Determination of Water in Petroleum Products, Lubricating Oils, and Additives by Coulometric Karl Fischer Titration

    D6593 Test Method for Evaluation of Automotive Engine Oils for Inhibition of Deposit Formation in a Spark-Ignition Internal Combustion Engine Fueled with Gasoline and Operated Under Low-Temperature, Light-Duty Conditions

    D8047 Test Method for Evaluation of Engine Oil Aeration Resistance in a Caterpillar C13 Direct-Injected Turbocharged Automotive Diesel Engine

    D8291 Test Method for Evaluation of Performance of Automotive Engine Oils in the Mitigation of Low-Speed, Preignition in the Sequence IX Gasoline Turbocharged Direct-Injection, Spark-Ignition Engine

    American National Standards Institute Standard

    ANSI MC96.1 Temperature Measurement Thermocouples Available from American National Standards Institute (ANSI), 25 W. 43rd St., 4th Floor, New York, NY 10036,

    Other Document

    2012 Ford Explorer 2.0 L-4V TiVCT GTDi Build Manual Available from Helminc,

    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 43.040.01 (Road vehicle systems in general)

    Referencing This Standard
    Link Here
    Link to Active (This link will always route to the current Active version of the standard.)

    DOI: 10.1520/D8279-21

    Citation Format

    ASTM D8279-21, Standard Test Method for Determination of Timing-Chain Wear in a Turbocharged, Direct-Injection, Spark-Ignition, Four-Cylinder Engine, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2021,

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