ASTM D4957 - 18

    Standard Test Method for Apparent Viscosity of Asphalt Emulsion Residues and Non-Newtonian Asphalts by Vacuum Capillary Viscometer

    Active Standard ASTM D4957 | Developed by Subcommittee: D04.44

    Book of Standards Volume: 04.03


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    Significance and Use

    5.1 This test method is useful for characterizing the flow behavior of asphalt emulsion residues and non-Newtonian asphalts. However, since non-Newtonian viscosity values depend on the level of shearing stress, its duration, and the shear history of the material, a non-Newtonian viscosity is not a unique material property. Instead, it is a parameter which is characteristic of the fluid-viscometer system under the conditions of the measurement procedure. Therefore, comparisons of non-Newtonian material behavior should only be made using apparent viscosities determined in similar viscometers under similar conditions of shearing stress and stress history. Procedures of sample preparation are especially important for repeatability or reproducibility of test results.

    Note 3: The quality of the results produced by this standard are dependent on the competence of the personnel performing the procedure and the capacity, calibration, and maintenance of the equipment used. Agencies that meet the criteria of Specification D3666 are generally considered capable of competent and objective testing, sampling, inspection, etc. Users of this standard are cautioned that compliance with Specification D3666 alone does not completely ensure reliable results. Reliable results depend on many factors; following the suggestions of Specification D3666 or some similar acceptable guideline provides a means of evaluating and controlling some of those factors.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This test method describes procedures primarily designed to determine the apparent viscosities of residues obtained by distilling asphalt emulsions according to Test Method D6997. It is also recommended for use on non-Newtonian asphalts at any temperature within the capability of the apparatus. This test method is useful in characterizing rheological properties of non-Newtonian asphalts as a function of shear rate under the conditions of the test method. This test is run in straight open-end tube viscometers, normally at 60 °C, but is suitable for use at other temperatures. It is applicable over the range from 5 to 50 000 Pa·s.

    Note 1: The precision for this test method is based on determinations made at 60 °C.

    1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard, except in reference to viscometer constant or calibration factor (K).

    1.3 Warning— Mercury has been designated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and many state agencies as a hazardous material that can cause central nervous system, kidney, and liver damage. Mercury or its vapor may be hazardous to health and corrosive to materials. Caution should be taken when handling mercury and mercury-containing products. See the applicable product Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) for details and the EPA’s website (www.epa.gov/mercury/faq.htm) for additional information. Users should be aware that selling mercury, mercury-containing products, or both, in your state may be prohibited by state law.

    1.4 The text of this standard references notes and footnotes which provide explanatory material. These notes and footnotes (excluding those in tables and figures) shall not be considered as requirements of the standard.

    1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

    1.6 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D2171 Test Method for Viscosity of Asphalts by Vacuum Capillary Viscometer

    D3666 Specification for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Testing and Inspecting Road and Paving Materials

    D6997 Test Method for Distillation of Emulsified Asphalt

    E1 Specification for ASTM Liquid-in-Glass Thermometers

    E77 Test Method for Inspection and Verification of Thermometers

    E644 Test Methods for Testing Industrial Resistance Thermometers

    E1137/E1137M Specification for Industrial Platinum Resistance Thermometers

    E2251 Specification for Liquid-in-Glass ASTM Thermometers with Low-Hazard Precision Liquids


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 91.100.50 (Binders. Sealing materials); 93.080.20 (Road construction materials)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 30121601(Asphalt); 12161804(Emulsions)


    Referencing This Standard
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    DOI: 10.1520/D4957-18

    Citation Format

    ASTM D4957-18, Standard Test Method for Apparent Viscosity of Asphalt Emulsion Residues and Non-Newtonian Asphalts by Vacuum Capillary Viscometer, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2018, www.astm.org

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