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Significance and Use
5.1 This practice is intended to describe the data requirements necessary to support the review of new aviation turbine fuels or additives by ASTM members for the developers or sponsors of these new products.
5.2 Its purpose is to guide the sponsor of a new fuel or new fuel additive through a defined evaluation process that includes the prerequisite testing and required periodic reviews with the subcommittee members. This practice provides a basis for calculating the volume of additive or fuel required for assessment, insight into the cost associated with taking a new fuel or new fuel additive through the evaluation process, and a defined path forward for introducing a new technology for the benefit of the aviation community.
5.3 The allocation of resources necessary to support the full scope of the evaluation process is the responsibility of the sponsor of the new fuel or fuel additive. This will include laboratory, rig, or engine tests, if required, as well as support of OEM activities such as the Phase 1 and 2 reviews.
5.4 This process may also be used to assess the impact of changes to fuels due to changes in production methods and/or changes during transportation. An example is the assessment of the impact of incidental materials on fuel properties. In the context of Practice , incidental materials shall be considered as an additive.
5.5 This guide is not an approval process. It is intended to describe test and analysis requirements necessary to generate data to support specification revision or development. This guide does not address the approval process for ASTM International standards.
5.6 This guide does not purport to specify an all-inclusive listing of test and analysis requirements to achieve ASTM International issuance of a specification or specification revision. The final requirements will be dependent upon the specific formulation and performance of the candidate fuel or additive and be determined by the ASTM International task groups and committees charged with overseeing the specification development.
5.7 Neither the generation of data and issuance of a research report described in this practice, nor the ultimate issuance of a new or revised ASTM fuel specification based on that data, constitutes approval to use the new or changed fuel or new additive on civil aircraft. As described in , the OEMs will conduct an internal review process in coordination with their aviation regulatory authorities to determine if the new fuel or additive is acceptable for use on each of their respective products. Only upon successful completion of this OEM internal review will the new fuel or additive be permitted for use on civil aircraft.
5.8 This guide does not describe data requirements of other approving authorities, such as national aviation regulatory authorities, or of other organizations or industry associations. However, it is expected that the data generated in the conduct of the procedure will be used by the OEMs and national aviation regulatory authorities to support their internal approval processes (see ) and may be useful for other purposes or other organizations.
1.1 This standard practice provides procedures to develop data for use in research reports for new aviation turbine fuels, changes to existing aviation turbine fuels, or new aviation turbine fuel additives. These research reports are intended to support the development and issuance of new specifications or specification revisions for these products. This standard practice has also been used to evaluate the effect of incidental materials on jet fuel properties and performance.
1.2 The procedures, tests, and selection of materials detailed in this practice are based on industry expertise to provide the necessary data to determine if the new or changed fuel or additive is suitable for use on existing aircraft and engines and for use in the current aviation operational and supply infrastructure. As such, it is primarily intended for the evaluation of drop-in fuels, but it can also be used for the evaluation of other fuels.
1.3 Because of the diversity of aviation hardware and potential variation in fuel/additive formulations, not every aspect may be fully covered and further work may be required. Therefore, additional data beyond that described in this practice may be requested by the ASTM task force, Subcommittee J, or Committee D02 upon review of the specific composition, performance, or other characteristics of the candidate fuel or additive.
1.4 Units of measure throughout this practice are stated in International System of Units (SI) unless the test method specifies non-SI units.
1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.6 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
A240/A240M Specification for Chromium and Chromium-Nickel Stainless Steel Plate, Sheet, and Strip for Pressure Vessels and for General Applications
B36/B36M Specification for Brass Plate, Sheet, Strip, And Rolled Bar
B93/B93M Specification for Magnesium Alloys in Ingot Form for Sand Castings, Permanent Mold Castings, and Die Castings
D56 Test Method for Flash Point by Tag Closed Cup Tester
D86 Test Method for Distillation of Petroleum Products and Liquid Fuels at Atmospheric Pressure
D93 Test Methods for Flash Point by Pensky-Martens Closed Cup Tester
D257 Test Methods for DC Resistance or Conductance of Insulating Materials
D395 Test Methods for Rubber PropertyCompression Set
D412 Test Methods for Vulcanized Rubber and Thermoplastic ElastomersTension
D445 Test Method for Kinematic Viscosity of Transparent and Opaque Liquids (and Calculation of Dynamic Viscosity)
D471 Test Method for Rubber PropertyEffect of Liquids
D790 Test Methods for Flexural Properties of Unreinforced and Reinforced Plastics and Electrical Insulating Materials
D924 Test Method for Dissipation Factor (or Power Factor) and Relative Permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of Electrical Insulating Liquids
D1002 Test Method for Apparent Shear Strength of Single-Lap-Joint Adhesively Bonded Metal Specimens by Tension Loading (Metal-to-Metal)
D1298 Test Method for Density, Relative Density, or API Gravity of Crude Petroleum and Liquid Petroleum Products by Hydrometer Method
D1319 Test Method for Hydrocarbon Types in Liquid Petroleum Products by Fluorescent Indicator Adsorption
D1331 Test Methods for Surface and Interfacial Tension of Solutions of Paints, Solvents, Solutions of Surface-Active Agents, and Related Materials
D1405 Test Method for Estimation of Net Heat of Combustion of Aviation Fuels
D1414 Test Methods for Rubber O-Rings
D1655 Specification for Aviation Turbine Fuels
D2240 Test Method for Rubber PropertyDurometer Hardness
D2386 Test Method for Freezing Point of Aviation Fuels
D2425 Test Method for Hydrocarbon Types in Middle Distillates by Mass Spectrometry
D2622 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products by Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry
D2624 Test Methods for Electrical Conductivity of Aviation and Distillate Fuels
D2717 Test Method for Thermal Conductivity of Liquids
D2887 Test Method for Boiling Range Distribution of Petroleum Fractions by Gas Chromatography
D3114 Method of Test for D-C Electrical Conductivity of Hydrocarbon Fuels
D3241 Test Method for Thermal Oxidation Stability of Aviation Turbine Fuels
D3242 Test Method for Acidity in Aviation Turbine Fuel
D3338 Test Method for Estimation of Net Heat of Combustion of Aviation Fuels
D3359 Test Methods for Rating Adhesion by Tape Test
D3363 Test Method for Film Hardness by Pencil Test
D3701 Test Method for Hydrogen Content of Aviation Turbine Fuels by Low Resolution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectrometry
D3703 Test Method for Hydroperoxide Number of Aviation Turbine Fuels, Gasoline and Diesel Fuels
D3828 Test Methods for Flash Point by Small Scale Closed Cup Tester
D3948 Test Method for Determining Water Separation Characteristics of Aviation Turbine Fuels by Portable Separometer
D4052 Test Method for Density, Relative Density, and API Gravity of Liquids by Digital Density Meter
D4066 Classification System for Nylon Injection and Extrusion Materials (PA)
D4529 Test Method for Estimation of Net Heat of Combustion of Aviation Fuels
D4629 Test Method for Trace Nitrogen in Liquid Hydrocarbons by Syringe/Inlet Oxidative Combustion and Chemiluminescence Detection
D4809 Test Method for Heat of Combustion of Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels by Bomb Calorimeter (Precision Method)
D5001 Test Method for Measurement of Lubricity of Aviation Turbine Fuels by the Ball-on-Cylinder Lubricity Evaluator (BOCLE)
D5291 Test Methods for Instrumental Determination of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Nitrogen in Petroleum Products and Lubricants
D5304 Test Method for Assessing Middle Distillate Fuel Storage Stability by Oxygen Overpressure
D5363 Specification for Anaerobic Single-Component Adhesives (AN)
D5453 Test Method for Determination of Total Sulfur in Light Hydrocarbons, Spark Ignition Engine Fuel, Diesel Engine Fuel, and Engine Oil by Ultraviolet Fluorescence
D5972 Test Method for Freezing Point of Aviation Fuels (Automatic Phase Transition Method)
D6304 Test Method for Determination of Water in Petroleum Products, Lubricating Oils, and Additives by Coulometric Karl Fischer Titration
D6378 Test Method for Determination of Vapor Pressure (VPX) of Petroleum Products, Hydrocarbons, and Hydrocarbon-Oxygenate Mixtures (Triple Expansion Method)
D6379 Test Method for Determination of Aromatic Hydrocarbon Types in Aviation Fuels and Petroleum DistillatesHigh Performance Liquid Chromatography Method with Refractive Index Detection
D6732 Test Method for Determination of Copper in Jet Fuels by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry
D6793 Test Method for Determination of Isothermal Secant and Tangent Bulk Modulus
D6890 Test Method for Determination of Ignition Delay and Derived Cetane Number (DCN) of Diesel Fuel Oils by Combustion in a Constant Volume Chamber
D7042 Test Method for Dynamic Viscosity and Density of Liquids by Stabinger Viscometer (and the Calculation of Kinematic Viscosity)
D7111 Test Method for Determination of Trace Elements in Middle Distillate Fuels by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES)
D7153 Test Method for Freezing Point of Aviation Fuels (Automatic Laser Method)
D7154 Test Method for Freezing Point of Aviation Fuels (Automatic Fiber Optical Method)
D7171 Test Method for Hydrogen Content of Middle Distillate Petroleum Products by Low-Resolution Pulsed Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
D7359 Test Method for Total Fluorine, Chlorine and Sulfur in Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Their Mixtures by Oxidative Pyrohydrolytic Combustion followed by Ion Chromatography Detection (Combustion Ion Chromatography-CIC)
D7566 Specification for Aviation Turbine Fuel Containing Synthesized Hydrocarbons
D7945 Test Method for Determination of Dynamic Viscosity and Derived Kinematic Viscosity of Liquids by Constant Pressure Viscometer
E411 Test Method for Trace Quantities of Carbonyl Compounds with 2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazine
E659 Test Method for Autoignition Temperature of Chemicals
E681 Test Method for Concentration Limits of Flammability of Chemicals (Vapors and Gases)
E1269 Test Method for Determining Specific Heat Capacity by Differential Scanning Calorimetry
Federal SpecificationsFED-STD-791 Testing Method of Lubricants, Liquid Fuels, and Related Products
ICS Number Code 75.160.20 (Liquid fuels)
UNSPSC Code 15101504(Aviation fuel)
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ASTM D4054-21, Standard Practice for Evaluation of New Aviation Turbine Fuels and Fuel Additives, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2021, www.astm.orgBack to Top