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    ASTM D4054 - 21a

    Standard Practice for Evaluation of New Aviation Turbine Fuels and Fuel Additives

    Active Standard ASTM D4054 | Developed by Subcommittee: D02.J0.04

    Book of Standards Volume: 05.01

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    Significance and Use

    5.1 This practice is intended to describe the data requirements necessary to support the review of new aviation turbine fuels or additives by ASTM members for the developers or sponsors of these new products.

    5.2 Its purpose is to guide the sponsor of a new fuel or new fuel additive through a defined evaluation process that includes the prerequisite testing and required periodic reviews with the subcommittee members. This practice provides a basis for calculating the volume of additive or fuel required for assessment, insight into the cost associated with taking a new fuel or new fuel additive through the evaluation process, and a defined path forward for introducing a new technology for the benefit of the aviation community.

    5.3 The allocation of resources necessary to support the full scope of the evaluation process is the responsibility of the sponsor of the new fuel or fuel additive. This will include laboratory, rig, or engine tests, if required, as well as support of OEM activities such as the Phase 1 and 2 reviews.

    5.4 This process may also be used to assess the impact of changes to fuels due to changes in production methods and/or changes during transportation. An example is the assessment of the impact of incidental materials on fuel properties. In the context of Practice D4054, incidental materials shall be considered as an additive.

    5.5 This guide is not an approval process. It is intended to describe test and analysis requirements necessary to generate data to support specification revision or development. This guide does not address the approval process for ASTM International standards.

    5.6 This guide does not purport to specify an all-inclusive listing of test and analysis requirements to achieve ASTM International issuance of a specification or specification revision. The final requirements will be dependent upon the specific formulation and performance of the candidate fuel or additive and be determined by the ASTM International task groups and committees charged with overseeing the specification development.

    5.7 Neither the generation of data and issuance of a research report described in this practice, nor the ultimate issuance of a new or revised ASTM fuel specification based on that data, constitutes approval to use the new or changed fuel or new additive on civil aircraft. As described in Appendix X2, the OEMs will conduct an internal review process in coordination with their aviation regulatory authorities to determine if the new fuel or additive is acceptable for use on each of their respective products. Only upon successful completion of this OEM internal review will the new fuel or additive be permitted for use on civil aircraft.

    5.8 This guide does not describe data requirements of other approving authorities, such as national aviation regulatory authorities, or of other organizations or industry associations. However, it is expected that the data generated in the conduct of the procedure will be used by the OEMs and national aviation regulatory authorities to support their internal approval processes (see Appendix X2) and may be useful for other purposes or other organizations.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This standard practice provides procedures to develop data for use in research reports for new aviation turbine fuels, changes to existing aviation turbine fuels, or new aviation turbine fuel additives. These research reports are intended to support the development and issuance of new specifications or specification revisions for these products. This standard practice has also been used to evaluate the effect of incidental materials on jet fuel properties and performance.

    1.2 The procedures, tests, and selection of materials detailed in this practice are based on industry expertise to provide the necessary data to determine if the new or changed fuel or additive is suitable for use on existing aircraft and engines and for use in the current aviation operational and supply infrastructure. As such, it is primarily intended for the evaluation of drop-in fuels, but it can also be used for the evaluation of other fuels.

    1.3 Because of the diversity of aviation hardware and potential variation in fuel/additive formulations, not every aspect may be fully covered and further work may be required. Therefore, additional data beyond that described in this practice may be requested by the ASTM task force, Subcommittee J, or Committee D02 upon review of the specific composition, performance, or other characteristics of the candidate fuel or additive.

    1.4 Units of measure throughout this practice are stated in International System of Units (SI) unless the test method specifies non-SI units.

    1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

    1.6 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.

    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    A240/A240M Specification for Chromium and Chromium-Nickel Stainless Steel Plate, Sheet, and Strip for Pressure Vessels and for General Applications

    B36/B36M Specification for Brass Plate, Sheet, Strip, And Rolled Bar

    B93/B93M Specification for Magnesium Alloys in Ingot Form for Sand Castings, Permanent Mold Castings, and Die Castings

    D56 Test Method for Flash Point by Tag Closed Cup Tester

    D86 Test Method for Distillation of Petroleum Products and Liquid Fuels at Atmospheric Pressure

    D93 Test Methods for Flash Point by Pensky-Martens Closed Cup Tester

    D257 Test Methods for DC Resistance or Conductance of Insulating Materials

    D395 Test Methods for Rubber PropertyCompression Set

    D412 Test Methods for Vulcanized Rubber and Thermoplastic ElastomersTension

    D445 Test Method for Kinematic Viscosity of Transparent and Opaque Liquids (and Calculation of Dynamic Viscosity)

    D471 Test Method for Rubber PropertyEffect of Liquids

    D790 Test Methods for Flexural Properties of Unreinforced and Reinforced Plastics and Electrical Insulating Materials

    D924 Test Method for Dissipation Factor (or Power Factor) and Relative Permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of Electrical Insulating Liquids

    D1002 Test Method for Apparent Shear Strength of Single-Lap-Joint Adhesively Bonded Metal Specimens by Tension Loading (Metal-to-Metal)

    D1298 Test Method for Density, Relative Density, or API Gravity of Crude Petroleum and Liquid Petroleum Products by Hydrometer Method

    D1319 Test Method for Hydrocarbon Types in Liquid Petroleum Products by Fluorescent Indicator Adsorption

    D1331 Test Methods for Surface and Interfacial Tension of Solutions of Paints, Solvents, Solutions of Surface-Active Agents, and Related Materials

    D1405 Test Method for Estimation of Net Heat of Combustion of Aviation Fuels

    D1414 Test Methods for Rubber O-Rings

    D1655 Specification for Aviation Turbine Fuels

    D2240 Test Method for Rubber PropertyDurometer Hardness

    D2386 Test Method for Freezing Point of Aviation Fuels

    D2425 Test Method for Hydrocarbon Types in Middle Distillates by Mass Spectrometry

    D2622 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products by Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry

    D2624 Test Methods for Electrical Conductivity of Aviation and Distillate Fuels

    D2717 Test Method for Thermal Conductivity of Liquids

    D2887 Test Method for Boiling Range Distribution of Petroleum Fractions by Gas Chromatography

    D3114 Method of Test for D-C Electrical Conductivity of Hydrocarbon Fuels

    D3241 Test Method for Thermal Oxidation Stability of Aviation Turbine Fuels

    D3242 Test Method for Acidity in Aviation Turbine Fuel

    D3338 Test Method for Estimation of Net Heat of Combustion of Aviation Fuels

    D3359 Test Methods for Rating Adhesion by Tape Test

    D3363 Test Method for Film Hardness by Pencil Test

    D3701 Test Method for Hydrogen Content of Aviation Turbine Fuels by Low Resolution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectrometry

    D3703 Test Method for Hydroperoxide Number of Aviation Turbine Fuels, Gasoline and Diesel Fuels

    D3828 Test Methods for Flash Point by Small Scale Closed Cup Tester

    D3948 Test Method for Determining Water Separation Characteristics of Aviation Turbine Fuels by Portable Separometer

    D4052 Test Method for Density, Relative Density, and API Gravity of Liquids by Digital Density Meter

    D4066 Classification System for Nylon Injection and Extrusion Materials (PA)

    D4529 Test Method for Estimation of Net Heat of Combustion of Aviation Fuels

    D4629 Test Method for Trace Nitrogen in Liquid Hydrocarbons by Syringe/Inlet Oxidative Combustion and Chemiluminescence Detection

    D4809 Test Method for Heat of Combustion of Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels by Bomb Calorimeter (Precision Method)

    D5001 Test Method for Measurement of Lubricity of Aviation Turbine Fuels by the Ball-on-Cylinder Lubricity Evaluator (BOCLE)

    D5291 Test Methods for Instrumental Determination of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Nitrogen in Petroleum Products and Lubricants

    D5304 Test Method for Assessing Middle Distillate Fuel Storage Stability by Oxygen Overpressure

    D5363 Specification for Anaerobic Single-Component Adhesives (AN)

    D5453 Test Method for Determination of Total Sulfur in Light Hydrocarbons, Spark Ignition Engine Fuel, Diesel Engine Fuel, and Engine Oil by Ultraviolet Fluorescence

    D5972 Test Method for Freezing Point of Aviation Fuels (Automatic Phase Transition Method)

    D6304 Test Method for Determination of Water in Petroleum Products, Lubricating Oils, and Additives by Coulometric Karl Fischer Titration

    D6378 Test Method for Determination of Vapor Pressure (VPX) of Petroleum Products, Hydrocarbons, and Hydrocarbon-Oxygenate Mixtures (Triple Expansion Method)

    D6379 Test Method for Determination of Aromatic Hydrocarbon Types in Aviation Fuels and Petroleum DistillatesHigh Performance Liquid Chromatography Method with Refractive Index Detection

    D6732 Test Method for Determination of Copper in Jet Fuels by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

    D6793 Test Method for Determination of Isothermal Secant and Tangent Bulk Modulus

    D6890 Test Method for Determination of Ignition Delay and Derived Cetane Number (DCN) of Diesel Fuel Oils by Combustion in a Constant Volume Chamber

    D7042 Test Method for Dynamic Viscosity and Density of Liquids by Stabinger Viscometer (and the Calculation of Kinematic Viscosity)

    D7111 Test Method for Determination of Trace Elements in Middle Distillate Fuels by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES)

    D7153 Test Method for Freezing Point of Aviation Fuels (Automatic Laser Method)

    D7154 Test Method for Freezing Point of Aviation Fuels (Automatic Fiber Optical Method)

    D7171 Test Method for Hydrogen Content of Middle Distillate Petroleum Products by Low-Resolution Pulsed Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    D7359 Test Method for Total Fluorine, Chlorine and Sulfur in Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Their Mixtures by Oxidative Pyrohydrolytic Combustion followed by Ion Chromatography Detection (Combustion Ion Chromatography-CIC)

    D7566 Specification for Aviation Turbine Fuel Containing Synthesized Hydrocarbons

    D7945 Test Method for Determination of Dynamic Viscosity and Derived Kinematic Viscosity of Liquids by Constant Pressure Viscometer

    E411 Test Method for Trace Quantities of Carbonyl Compounds with 2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazine

    E659 Test Method for Autoignition Temperature of Chemicals

    E681 Test Method for Concentration Limits of Flammability of Chemicals (Vapors and Gases)

    E1269 Test Method for Determining Specific Heat Capacity by Differential Scanning Calorimetry

    Federal Specifications

    FED-STD-791 Testing Method of Lubricants, Liquid Fuels, and Related Products

    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 75.160.20 (Liquid fuels)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 15101504(Aviation fuel)

    Referencing This Standard
    Link Here
    Link to Active (This link will always route to the current Active version of the standard.)

    DOI: 10.1520/D4054-21A

    Citation Format

    ASTM D4054-21a, Standard Practice for Evaluation of New Aviation Turbine Fuels and Fuel Additives, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2021, www.astm.org

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