ASTM D2983 - 19e1

    Standard Test Method for Low-Temperature Viscosity of Automatic Transmission Fluids, Hydraulic Fluids, and Lubricants using a Rotational Viscometer

    Active Standard ASTM D2983 | Developed by Subcommittee: D02.07

    Book of Standards Volume: 05.01


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    Significance and Use

    5.1 The low-temperature, low-shear-rate viscosity of automatic transmission fluids, gear oils, torque and tractor fluids, and industrial and automotive hydraulic oils (see Appendix X4) are of considerable importance to the proper operation of many mechanical devices. Measurement of the viscometric properties of these oils and fluids at low temperatures is often used to specify their acceptance for service. This test method is used in a number of specifications.

    5.2 Initially this test method was developed to determine whether an automatic transmission fluid (ATF) would meet OEM low temperature performance criterion originally defined using a particular model viscometer.6 The viscosity range covered in the original ATF performance correlation studies was from less than 1000 mPa·s to more than 60 000 mPa·s. The success of the ATF correlation and the development of this test method has over time been applied to other fluids and lubricants such as gear oils, hydraulic fluids, and so forth.

    5.3 Procedures A, B, C, and D of this test method describe how to measure apparent viscosity directly without the errors associated with earlier techniques using extrapolation of experimental viscometric data obtained at higher temperatures.

    Note 1: Low temperature viscosity values obtained by either interpolation or extrapolation of oils may be subject to errors caused by gelation and other forms of non-Newtonian response to spindle speed and torque.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This test method covers the use of rotational viscometers with an appropriate torque range and specific spindle for the determination of the low-shear-rate viscosity of automatic transmission fluids, gear oils, hydraulic fluids, and some lubricants. This test method covers the viscosity range of 300 mPa·s to 900 000 mPa·s

    1.2 This test method was previously titled “Low-Temperature Viscosity of Lubricants Measured by Brookfield Viscometer.” In the lubricant industry, D2983 test results have often been referred to as “Brookfield2 Viscosity” which implies a viscosity determined by this method.

    1.3 This test method contains four procedures: Procedure A is used when only an air bath is used to cool samples in preparation for viscosity measurement. Procedure B is used when a mechanically refrigerated programmable liquid bath is used to cool samples in preparation for viscosity measurement. Procedure C is used when a mechanically refrigerated constant temperature liquid bath is used to cool samples by means of a simulated air cell (SimAir)3 Cell in preparation for viscosity measurement. Procedure D automates the determination of low temperature, low-shear-rate viscosity by utilizing a thermoelectrically heated and cooled temperature-controlled sample chamber along with a programmable rotational viscometer.

    1.4 There are multiple precision studies for this test method.

    1.4.1 The viscosity data used for the precision studies for Procedures A, B, and C covered a range from 300 mPa·s to 170 000 mPa·s at test temperatures of –12 °C, –26 °C, and –40 °C. Appendix X5 includes precision data for –55 °C test temperature and includes samples with viscosities greater 500 000 mPa·s.

    1.4.2 The viscosity data used for Procedure D precision study was from 6400 mPa·s to 256 000 mPa·s at test temperatures of –26 °C and –40 °C.

    1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

    1.5.1 The test method uses the SI unit, milliPascal-second (mPa·s), as the unit of viscosity. (1 cP = 1 mPa·s).

    1.6 WARNING—Mercury has been designated by many regulatory agencies as a hazardous substance that can cause serious medical issues. Mercury, or its vapor, has been demonstrated to be hazardous to health and corrosive to materials. Use Caution when handling mercury and mercury-containing products. See the applicable product Safety Data Sheet (SDS) for additional information. The potential exists that selling mercury or mercury-containing products, or both, is prohibited by local or national law. Users must determine legality of sales in their location.

    1.7 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

    1.8 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D341 Practice for Viscosity-Temperature Charts for Liquid Petroleum Products

    D2162 Practice for Basic Calibration of Master Viscometers and Viscosity Oil Standards

    D4175 Terminology Relating to Petroleum Products, Liquid Fuels, and Lubricants

    D5133 Test Method for Low Temperature, Low Shear Rate, Viscosity/Temperature Dependence of Lubricating Oils Using a Temperature-Scanning Technique

    D5293 Test Method for Apparent Viscosity of Engine Oils and Base Stocks Between 10C and 35C Using Cold-Cranking Simulator

    D6708 Practice for Statistical Assessment and Improvement of Expected Agreement Between Two Test Methods that Purport to Measure the Same Property of a Material

    D7962 Practice for Determination of Minimum Immersion Depth and Assessment of Temperature Sensor Measurement Drift

    D8210 Test Method for Automatic Determination of Low-Temperature Viscosity of Automatic Transmission Fluids, Hydraulic Fluids, and Lubricants Using a Rotational Viscometer

    E1 Specification for ASTM Liquid-in-Glass Thermometers

    E644 Test Methods for Testing Industrial Resistance Thermometers

    E2877 Guide for Digital Contact Thermometers

    ISO Standard

    ISO 17025


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 75.100 (Lubricants, industrial oils and related products)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 15121500(Lubricating preparations); 41103312(Viscosimeters)


    Referencing This Standard
    Link Here
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    DOI: 10.1520/D2983-19E01

    Citation Format

    ASTM D2983-19e1, Standard Test Method for Low-Temperature Viscosity of Automatic Transmission Fluids, Hydraulic Fluids, and Lubricants using a Rotational Viscometer, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2019, www.astm.org

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