ASTM D2863 - 17

    Standard Test Method for Measuring the Minimum Oxygen Concentration to Support Candle-Like Combustion of Plastics (Oxygen Index)

    Active Standard ASTM D2863 | Developed by Subcommittee: D20.30

    Book of Standards Volume: 08.01


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    Significance and Use

    5.1 This test method provides for the measuring of the minimum concentration of oxygen in a flowing mixture of oxygen and nitrogen that will just support flaming combustion of plastics. Correlation with burning characteristics under actual use conditions is not implied.

    5.2 In this test method, the specimens are subjected to one or more specific sets of laboratory test conditions. If different test conditions are substituted or the end-use conditions are changed, it is not always possible by or from this test to predict changes in the fire-test-response characteristics measured. Therefore, the results are valid only for the fire-test-exposure conditions described in this test method.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This fire-test-response standard describes a procedure for measuring the minimum concentration of oxygen, expressed as percent volume, that will just support flaming combustion in a flowing mixture of oxygen and nitrogen.

    1.2 This test method provides three testing procedures. Procedure A involves top surface ignition, Procedure B involves propagating ignition, and Procedure C is a short procedure involving the comparison with a specified minimum value of the oxygen index.

    1.3 Test specimens used for this test method are prepared into one of six types of specimens (see Table 1).

    TABLE 1 Test Specimen Dimensions

    Test Specimen TypeA

    Dimensions

    Material Form

    Length,
    mm

    Width,
    mm

    Thickness, mm

     

    I

    80 to 150

    10 ± 0.5

    4 ± 0.25

    for molding materials

     

    II

    80 to 150

    10 ± 0.5

    10 ± 0.5

    for cellular materials

     

    IIIB

    80 to 150

    10 ± 0.5

    10.5

    for sheet materials

     

    IV

    70 to 150

    6.5 ± 0.5

    3 ± 0.25

    alternative size for
    self-supporting molding
    or sheet materials

     

    VB

    140 ± 5

    52 ± 0.5

    10.5

    for flexible film or sheet

     

    VIB, C

    140 to 200

    20

    0.02 to 0.10

    for thin film; limited to film
    that can be rolled by the
    wire specified in 6.7

    (A) Test specimens of Types I, II, III, and IV are suitable for materials that are self-supporting at these dimensions. Test specimens of Form V and VI are suitable for materials that require support during testing. Test specimens of Form VI are suitable for film materials that can be rolled into a self-supporting specimen by the procedure in 7.4.
    (B) Compare results obtained using Type III, V, and VI test specimens only to those obtained using specimens of the same form and thickness. It is assumed that the amount of variation in thickness for such materials will be controlled by other standards.
    (C) The test specimen of Type VI is suitable for thin film that is self-supporting when it is rolled (see 7.4). Dimensions in the table are of the specimen size from which the rolled form is made. If the film is very thin, it is possible that proper results will only be obtained if two or more layers are combined in the preparation of the roll to obtain proper results.

    1.4 This test method provides for testing materials that are structurally self-supporting in the form of vertical bars or sheet up to 10.5-mm thick. Such materials are solid, laminated or cellular materials characterized by an apparent density greater than 15 kg/m3.

    1.5 This test method also provides for testing flexible sheet or film materials, while supported vertically.

    1.6 This test method is also suitable, in some cases, for cellular materials having an apparent density of less than 15 kg/m3.

    Note 1: Although this test method has been found applicable for testing some other materials, the precision of the test method has not been determined for these materials, or for specimen geometries and test conditions outside those recommended herein.

    1.7 This test method measures and describes the response of materials, products, or assemblies to heat and flame under controlled conditions, but does not by itself incorporate all factors required for fire hazard or fire risk assessment of the materials, products, or assemblies under actual fire conditions.

    1.8 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

    1.9 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Specific hazards statement are given in Section 10.

    1.10 Fire testing is inherently hazardous. Adequate safeguards for personnel and property shall be employed in conducting these tests.

    Note 2: This test method and ISO 4589-2 are technically equivalent when using the gas measurement and control device described in 6.3.1, with direct oxygen concentration measurement.

    1.11 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D618 Practice for Conditioning Plastics for Testing

    D1071 Test Methods for Volumetric Measurement of Gaseous Fuel Samples

    D1622 Test Method for Apparent Density of Rigid Cellular Plastics

    D4802 Specification for Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) Acrylic Plastic Sheet

    E176 Terminology of Fire Standards

    E691 Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method

    ISO Standards

    ISO 13943 Fire SafetyVocabulary

    ISO 4589-2 PlasticsDetermination of Flammability by Oxygen IndexPart 2, Ambient Temperatures

    ISO 7823-1


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 83.080.01 (Plastics in general)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code


    Referencing This Standard
    Link Here
    Link to Active (This link will always route to the current Active version of the standard.)

    DOI: 10.1520/D2863-17

    Citation Format

    ASTM D2863-17, Standard Test Method for Measuring the Minimum Oxygen Concentration to Support Candle-Like Combustion of Plastics (Oxygen Index), ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2017, www.astm.org

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