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    ASTM D2709 - 16

    Standard Test Method for Water and Sediment in Middle Distillate Fuels by Centrifuge

    Active Standard ASTM D2709 | Developed by Subcommittee: D02.14

    Book of Standards Volume: 05.01

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    Significance and Use

    5.1 This test method is used as an indication of free water and sediment suspended as haze, cloudiness, or droplets in middle distillate fuels such as Grades No. 1 and 2 fuel oil (Specification D396), Grades No. 1-D and 2-D diesel fuel (Specification D975), and Grades No. 0-GT, 1-GT, and 2-GT gas turbine fuels (Specification D2880), similar fuels and blendstocks used to make these fuels.

    5.2 Appreciable amounts of free water and sediment in a fuel oil tend to cause fouling of fuel-handling facilities and to give trouble in the fuel system of a burner or engine. An accumulation of sediment in storage tanks and on filter screens can obstruct the flow of oil from the tank to the combustor. Free water in middle distillate fuels can cause corrosion of tanks and equipment, and if detergent is present, the water can cause emulsions or a hazy appearance. Free water can support microbiological growth at fuel-water interfaces in fuel systems.

    (A) Measured between tips of opposite tubes when in rotating position.
    (B) “r/min” is the correct SI symbol for the former term “rpm.”

    1. Scope

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the volume of free water and sediment (as a percentage of the sample) that is suspended in the bulk fuel in middle distillate fuels with viscosities in the range of 1.0 mm2/s to 4.1 mm2/s at 40 °C (1.0 cSt to 4.1 cSt at 104 °F) and densities in the range of 770 kg/m3 to 900 kg/m3 at 15 °C.

    Note 1: Fuels corresponding to Specification D396 Grades No. 1 and 2, D975 Grades No. 1-D and 2-D, Specification D2880 Grades No. 0-GT, 1-GT and 2-GT, and Specification D3699 Grades No. 1-K and 2-K and similar middle distillate fuels and blendstocks will usually fall in this viscosity and density range. Test Method D1796 is intended for higher viscosity fuel oils.

    1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard.

    1.2.1 Exception—The non-SI values are for information only.

    1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D396 Specification for Fuel Oils

    D975 Specification for Diesel Fuel Oils

    D1796 Test Method for Water and Sediment in Fuel Oils by the Centrifuge Method (Laboratory Procedure)

    D2880 Specification for Gas Turbine Fuel Oils

    D3699 Specification for Kerosine

    D4057 Practice for Manual Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products

    D4175 Terminology Relating to Petroleum Products, Liquid Fuels, and Lubricants

    D4177 Practice for Automatic Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products

    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 75.160.20 (Liquid fuels)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 15101500(Petroleum and distillates)

    Referencing This Standard
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    DOI: 10.1520/D2709-16

    Citation Format

    ASTM D2709-16, Standard Test Method for Water and Sediment in Middle Distillate Fuels by Centrifuge, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2016, www.astm.org

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