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Significance and Use
5.1 Accurate determination of the density, relative density (specific gravity), or API gravity of petroleum and its products is necessary for the conversion of measured volumes to volumes or masses, or both, at the standard reference temperatures of 15 °C or 60 °F during custody transfer.
5.2 This procedure is most suitable for determining the density, relative density (specific gravity), or API gravity of low viscosity transparent liquids. This procedure can also be used for viscous liquids by allowing sufficient time for the hydrometer to reach temperature equilibrium, and for opaque liquids by employing a suitable meniscus correction. Additionally for both transparent and opaque fluids the readings shall be corrected for the thermal glass expansion effect and alternative calibration temperature effects before correcting to the reference temperature.
5.3 When used in connection with bulk oil measurements, volume correction errors are minimized by observing the hydrometer reading at a temperature close to that of the bulk oil temperature.
5.4 Density, relative density, or API gravity is a factor governing the quality and pricing of crude petroleum. However, this property of petroleum is an uncertain indication of its quality unless correlated with other properties.
5.5 Density is an important quality indicator for automotive, aviation and marine fuels, where it affects storage, handling and combustion.
1.1 This test method covers the laboratory determination using a glass hydrometer in conjunction with a series of calculations, of the density, relative density, or API gravity of crude petroleum, petroleum products, or mixtures of petroleum and nonpetroleum products normally handled as liquids, and having a Reid vapor pressure of 101.325 kPa (14.696 psi) or less. Values are determined at existing temperatures and corrected to 15 °C or 60 °F by means of a series of calculations and international standard tables.
1.2 The initial hydrometer readings obtained are uncorrected hydrometer readings and not density measurements. Readings are measured on a hydrometer at either the reference temperature or at another convenient temperature, and readings are corrected for the meniscus effect, the thermal glass expansion effect, alternative calibration temperature effects and to the reference temperature by means of the Petroleum Measurement Tables; values obtained at other than the reference temperature being hydrometer readings and not density measurements.
1.3 Readings determined as density, relative density, or API gravity can be converted to equivalent values in the other units or alternative reference temperatures by means of Interconversion Procedures (API MPMS Chapter 11.5), or Adjunct to Guide for Petroleum Measurement Tables (API MPMS Chapter 11.1), or both, or tables, as applicable.
1.4 The initial hydrometer readings determined in the laboratory shall be recorded before performing any calculations. The calculations required in Section shall be applied to the initial hydrometer reading with observations and results reported as required by Section prior to use in a subsequent calculation procedure (ticket calculation, meter factor calculation, or base prover volume determination).
1.5 contains a procedure for verifying or certifying the equipment for this test method.
1.6 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard.
1.6.1 Exception—The values given in parentheses are provided for information only.
1.7 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.8 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D1250 Guide for Use of the Petroleum Measurement Tables
D4057 Practice for Manual Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
D4177 Practice for Automatic Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
D5854 Practice for Mixing and Handling of Liquid Samples of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
E1 Specification for ASTM Liquid-in-Glass Thermometers
E100 Specification for ASTM Hydrometers
API StandardsMPMS Chapter 11.5 Density/Weight/Volume Intraconversion MPMS Chapter 8.1 Manual Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products (ASTM Practice ) MPMS Chapter 8.2 Automatic Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products (ASTM Practice ) MPMS Chapter 8.3 Mixing and Handling of Liquid Samples of Petroleum and Petroleum Products (ASTM Practice )
Energy Institute StandardsIP389 Determination of wax appearance temperature (WAT) of middle distillate fuels by differential thermal analysis (DTA) or differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) IP Standard Methods Book, Appendix A, Specifications IP Standard Thermometers
ISO StandardsISO 649-1 Laboratory glassware Density hydrometers for general purpose Part 1: Specification
ICS Number Code 75.040 (Crude petroleum); 75.080 (Petroleum products in general)
UNSPSC Code 15101500(Petroleum and distillates)
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ASTM D1298-12b(2017), Standard Test Method for Density, Relative Density, or API Gravity of Crude Petroleum and Liquid Petroleum Products by Hydrometer Method, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2017, www.astm.orgBack to Top