ASTM E2112-07

    Standard Practice for Installation of Exterior Windows, Doors and Skylights

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    1. Scope

    1.1 This practice covers the installation of fenestration products in new and existing construction. For the purpose of this practice, fenestration products shall be limited to windows, sliding patio-type doors, swinging patio type doors, and skylights, as used primarily in residential and light commercial buildings.

    1.2 This practice assumes that the installer possesses basic woodworking skills and an understanding of wall and roof construction, sheet metal work, and joint sealant practices.

    1.3 This practice attempts to instruct and familiarize the installer with the concepts of both Barrier Systems and Membrane/Drainage Systems, in order to ensure the continuity of the building envelope. This practice attempts to educate the installer, builder, architect, and other users in the identification and understanding of the water shedding system of the building envelope.

    1.4 This practice covers the installation process from pre-installation procedures through post-installation procedures, for single units or factory-mulled multiple units in a single opening. It does not cover the fabrication or assembly of multiple units, whether such fabrication takes place in a factory or at the intended installation site. The installer should check with the manufacturer of factory-assembled units for instructions for anchoring. When using field-mulled units, follow manufacturer's recommendations and make certain that they meet applicable codes. This practice does not cover the selection of appropriate fenestration products for a given application, nor the selection of other products or systems for use in the installation.

    1.5 This practice provides minimum requirements that will help to accomplish the installation of fenestration products in an effective manner. Actual conditions in buildings vary greatly and, in some cases, substantial additional precautions may be required. In the event that the manufacturer's installation instructions provided with the product conflict with requirements of this practice, the manufacturer's instructions shall prevail. This practice is not intended to limit or exclude other new procedures that may refine or further improve the effectiveness of fenestration installation.

    1.5.1 This practice is intended to be used for background information in order to develop training manuals and training programs. Further, this practice attempts to consolidate and unify the various steps of construction, tying together the various trades involved with the continuity between fenestration products and the building envelope.

    1.6 The text of this practice references notes and footnotes that provide explanatory material. These notes and footnotes (excluding those in tables and figures) shall not be considered as requirements of this practice.

    1.7 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. The values shown in parentheses are for information only.

    1.8 This standard has not been created to address all issues related to every possible installation situation one might experience in the field. Furthermore, this practice does not purport to provide fail-safe installation methods, assurance or protection against installation deficiencies, or a standard by which architects can specify or ensure delivered performance.

    Note 1—There are no ISO standards covering the primary subject matter of this practice.

    1.9 This practice does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.For specific precautionary statements, see Section 5, Related Procedures. Where a lead hazard is known or suspected, refer to ASTM Standards on Lead Hazards Associated with Buildings and to applicable state and federal regulations. Where an asbestos hazard is known or suspected, refer to the ASTM Manual on Asbestos Control, and to applicable state and federal regulations.

    1.10 Table of Contents

    Table of Contents1.10
    Referenced Documents2
    Description of Terms Specific to this Standard3.2
    Significance and Use4
    Related Issues and Procedures5
    Continuity with the Weather Barrier Systems5.1
    Joints and Anchorages5.2
    Moisture Entrapment5.3
    Weather Resistant Barrier5.4
    Construction Sequence5.6
    Construction Damage5.7
    Rough Opening5.9
    Rough Opening Size5.9.1
    Insulating or Filling the Rough Opening Gap5.9.2
    Materials Protection5.10
    Cleaning and Maintenance5.11
    Dissimilar Materials5.12
    Flashing Requirements5.13
    Fastening Systems/Anchorage5.14
    Panning Systems and Subsills for Weatherability5.16
    Pre-Installation Procedures5.17
    Sealants-Selection and Use5.18
    Window Cleaner Anchors and Related SafetyHardware5.19
    Continuity Between the Fenestration Products and Other Components of the Building Envelope6
    Water Shedding Strategies of Wall and Roof Systems7
    Concept of Surface Barrier Systems and Membrane/Drainage Systems7.1
    Surface Barrier Systems7.1.1
    Membrane/Drainage Systems7.1.2
    Identification of Systems7.2
    Installation Methods For Windows8
    Windows in Walls Utilizing a Membrane/Drainage System8.1
    Windows with Perimeter Mounting Flanges (Nail Fins) in Drainage Type Wall Construction8.1.1
    Flange Types8.1.1.1
    Selection of Installation Method8.1.1.2
    Method A8.
    Method B8.
    Method A18.
    Method B18.
    Non-Finned Windows in Membrane/Drainage Type Walls8.1.2
    Windows in Walls Utilizing a Barrier Wall System(Sealant Method)8.2
    Windows in Walls Utilizing an Exterior Barrier System (EIFS or Direct Applied)8.3
    Special Considerations8.4
    Aluminum Framed Windows8.4.1
    Vinyl Framed Windows8.4.2
    Replacement Window Installation8.5
    Partial Window Replacement for Existing Integral Flange Windows8.5.1
    Partial Replacement of Mill Shop Wood Windows8.5.2
    Complete Window Replacement8.5.3
    Destructive Window Replacement (Fin Type)
    Non-Destructive Window Replacement (Non-Fin Type)
    Installation Methods for Doors9
    Doors in Walls Utilizing a Membrane/Drainage System9.1
    Doors with Perimeter Mounting Flanges (Nailing Fins) in Drainage Type Wall Construction9.1.1
    Flange Types9.1.1.1
    Selection of Installation Method9.1.1.2
    Method A9.
    Method B9.
    Method A19.
    Method B19.
    Hinged Swing (Non-finned) Doors in Membrane/Drainage Type Walls9.1.2
    Installation Methods for Skylights10
    Product Types10.1
    Flashing Procedures10.2
    Aluminum/Copper Sheet Flashing10.3
    Aluminum/Copper Step Flashing (Fabricated or Engineered)10.4
    Membrane Flashing10.5
    Post-Installation Procedures11
    Air Barrier Foam Sealant Used in the Rough Opening GapAnnex A1
    Emergency Escape and Rescue RequirementsAnnex A2
    Minimum Height Requirements for Interior Height of Pan FlashingAnnex A3
    SealantsAnnex A4
    Window/Door Flashing TypesAppendix X1
    Cautions for InstallationAppendix X2
    Bibliography/Other Referenced Installation GuidesAppendix X3

    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    A123/A123M Specification for Zinc (Hot-Dip Galvanized) Coatings on Iron and Steel Products

    B456 Specification for Electrodeposited Coatings of Copper Plus Nickel Plus Chromium and Nickel Plus Chromium

    B663/B663M Specification for Silver-Tungsten Carbide Electrical Contact Material

    B766 Specification for Electrodeposited Coatings of Cadmium

    C717 Terminology of Building Seals and Sealants

    C755 Practice for Selection of Water Vapor Retarders for Thermal Insulation

    C794 Test Method for Adhesion-in-Peel of Elastomeric Joint Sealants

    C834 Specification for Latex Sealants

    C920 Specification for Elastomeric Joint Sealants

    C1085 Specification for Butyl Rubber Based Solvent-Release Sealants

    C1193 Guide for Use of Joint Sealants

    C1281 Specification for Preformed Tape Sealants for Glazing Applications

    C1299 Guide for Use in Selection of Liquid-Applied Sealants

    C1311 Specification for Solvent Release Sealants

    C1382 Test Method for Determining Tensile Adhesion Properties of Sealants When Used in Exterior Insulation and Finish Systems (EIFS) Joints

    C1397 Practice for Application of Class PB Exterior Insulation and Finish Systems (EIFS) and EIFS with Drainage

    D779 Test Method for Determining the Water Vapor Resistance of Sheet Materials in Contact with Liquid Water by the Dry Indicator Method

    D1970/D1970M Specification for Self-Adhering Polymer Modified Bituminous Sheet Materials Used as Steep Roofing Underlayment for Ice Dam Protection

    D2822/D2822M Specification for Asphalt Roof Cement, Asbestos-Containing

    E283 Test Method for Determining Rate of Air Leakage Through Exterior Windows, Skylights, Curtain Walls, and Doors Under Specified Pressure Differences Across the Specimen

    E331 Test Method for Water Penetration of Exterior Windows, Skylights, Doors, and Curtain Walls by Uniform Static Air Pressure Difference

    E547 Test Method for Water Penetration of Exterior Windows, Skylights, Doors, and Curtain Walls by Cyclic Static Air Pressure Difference

    E631 Terminology of Building Constructions

    E783 Test Method for Field Measurement of Air Leakage Through Installed Exterior Windows and Doors

    E1105 Test Method for Field Determination of Water Penetration of Installed Exterior Windows, Skylights, Doors, and Curtain Walls, by Uniform or Cyclic Static Air Pressure Difference

    CPSC Standard

    16 CFR 1201

    CSA Standards

    A440-M90 WindowsA National Standard of Canada

    A440.4 Fenestration Product Installation

    AAMA Standards


    713 Voluntary Test Method to Determine Chemical Compatibility of Sealants and Self-Adhered Flexible Flashings

    714 Voluntary Specification for Liquid Applied Flashing Used to Create a Water Resistive Seal around Exterior Wall Openings in Buildings

    800 Voluntary Specifications and Test Methods for Sealants

    850 Fenestration Sealants Guide Manual

    ANSI/ISDI Standard

    102 Insulated Steel Door SystemsInstallation Standard

    AAMA/WDMA Standard

    1600/IS7 Voluntary Specifications for Roof Windows and Skylights

    ANSI/AAMA/WDMA Standard


    FMA/AAMA Standards

    100 Standard Practice for the Installation of Windows with Flanges or Mounting Fins in Wood Frame Construction for Extreme Wind/Water Exposure

    200 Standard Practice for the Installation of Windows with Frontal Flanges for Surface Barrier Masonry Construction for Extreme Wind/Water Conditions

    ANSI/ASME Standard

    A39.1 Standard, Safety Requirements for Window Cleaning

    ANSI/EIMA Standard

    99-A-200 Exterior Insulation and Finish Systems (EIFS)

    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 91.060.50 (Doors and windows)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 30170000(Doors and windows and glass); 95121500(Commercial and entertainment buildings and structures)

    Referencing This Standard
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    DOI: 10.1520/E2112-07

    Citation Format

    ASTM E2112-07, Standard Practice for Installation of Exterior Windows, Doors and Skylights, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2007,

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