ASTM G88 - 13

    Standard Guide for Designing Systems for Oxygen Service

    Active Standard ASTM G88 | Developed by Subcommittee: G04.02

    Book of Standards Volume: 14.04


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    Significance and Use

    4.1 Purpose of Guide G88—The purpose of this guide is to furnish qualified technical personnel with pertinent information for use in designing oxygen systems or assessing the safety of oxygen systems. It emphasizes factors that cause ignition and enhance propagation throughout a system's service life so that the occurrence of these conditions may be avoided or minimized. It is not intended as a specification for the design of oxygen systems.

    4.2 Role of Guide G88—ASTM Committee G04’s abstract standard is Guide G128, and it introduces the overall subject of oxygen compatibility and the body of related work and related resources including standards, research reports and a video3 G04 has developed and adopted for use in coping with oxygen hazards. The interrelationships among the standards are shown in Table 1. Guide G88 deals with oxygen system and hardware design principles, and it is supported by a regulator ignition test (see G175).Other standards cover: (1) the selection of materials (both metals and nonmetals) which are supported by a series of standards for testing materials of interest and for preparing materials for test; (2) the cleaning of oxygen hardware which is supported by a series of standards on cleaning procedures, cleanliness testing methods, and cleaning agent selection and evaluation; (3) the study of fire incidents in oxygen systems; and (4) related terminology.

    TABLE 1 Role of Guide G88 with Respect to Other ASTM G04 Standard Guides and Practices and their Supporting Test MethodsA, B

    G128 Guide to Control of Hazards and Risks in Oxygen-Enriched
        Systems

     G88 Designing Systems for Oxygen Service

      G175 Evaluating the Ignition Sensitivity and Fault Tolerance of
          Oxygen Regulators

     

     G63 Evaluating Nonmetallic Materials

      D2512 Compatibility of Materials With Liquid Oxygen
           (Mechanical Impact)

      D2863 Measuring the Minimum Oxygen Concentration to Support
           Candle-Like Combustion (Oxygen Index)

      D4809 Heat of Combustion of Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels by
           Bomb Calorimeter (Precision Method)

      G72 Autogenous Ignition Temperature of Liquids and Solids in
          High-Pressure Oxygen Enriched Atmospheres

      G74 Ignition Sensitivity of Materials to Gaseous Fluid Impact

      G86 Determining Ignition Sensitivity of Materials to Mechanical
          Impact in Pressurized Oxygen Environments

      G114 Aging Oxygen-Service Materials Prior to Flammability
          Testing

      G125 Measuring Liquid and Solid Material Fire Limits in Gaseous
          Oxidants

     G94 Evaluating Metals

      G124 Determining the Combustion Behavior of Metallic Materials
          in Oxygen Enriched Atmospheres

     G93 Cleaning Methods for Material and Equipment

      G120 Determination of Soluble Residual Contamination in
          Materials and Components by Soxhlet Extraction

      G136 Determination of Soluble Residual Contaminants in
          Materials by Ultrasonic Extraction

      G144 Determination of Residual Contamination of Materials and
          Components by Total Carbon Analysis Using a High
          Temperature Combustion Analyzer

      G127 Guide to the Selection of Cleaning Agents for Oxygen
          Systems

       G122 Test Method for Evaluating the Effectiveness of
           Cleaning Agents

        G121 Preparation of Contaminated Test Coupons for the
            Evaluation of Cleaning Agents

      G131 Cleaning of Materials and Components by Ultrasonic
          Techniques

     G145 Studying Fire Incidents in Oxygen Systems

     G126 Terminology Related to the Compatibility and Sensitivity of
         Materials in Oxygen-Enriched Atmospheres

    Manual 36 – Safe Use of Oxygen and Oxygen Systems: Guidelines for Oxygen System Design, Materials Selection, Operations, Storage, and Transportation

    A ASTM D2863 is under the jurisdiction of Committee D20 on Plastics, and D4809 is under the jurisdiction of Committee D02 on Petroleum Products and Lubricants but both are used in the asessment of flammability and sensitivity of materials in oxygen-enriched atmospheres.
    B ASTM Manual 36 – Safe Use of Oxygen and Oxygen Systems can be used as a handbook to furnish qualified technical personnel with pertinent information for use in designing oxygen systems or assessing the safety of oxygen systems. However, Manual 36 is not a balloted technical standard.

    4.3 Use of Guide G88—Guide G88 can be used as an initial design guideline for oxygen systems and components, but can also be used as a tool to perform safety audits of existing oxygen systems and components. When used as an auditing tool for existing systems, Guide G88 can be applied in two stages: first examining system schematics/drawings, then by visually inspecting the system (that is, “walking the pipeline”). Guide G88 can be used in conjunction with the materials selection/hazards analysis approach outlined in Guides G63 and G94 to provide a comprehensive review of the fire hazards in an oxygen or oxygen-enriched system (1).5

    1. Scope

    1.1 This guide applies to the design of systems for oxygen or oxygen-enriched service but is not a comprehensive document. Specifically, this guide addresses system factors that affect the avoidance of ignition and fire. It does not thoroughly address the selection of materials of construction for which Guides G63 and G94 are available, nor does it cover mechanical, economic or other design considerations for which well-known practices are available. This guide also does not address issues concerning the toxicity of nonmetals in breathing gas or medical gas systems.

    Note 1The American Society for Testing and Materials takes no position respecting the validity of any evaluation methods asserted in connection with any item mentioned in this guide. Users of this guide are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such evaluation methods and data and the risk of use of such evaluation methods and data are entirely their own responsibility.

    1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory requirements prior to use.

    1.3 This standard guide is organized as follows:

    Section Title

    Section

    Referenced Documents

    2

     ASTM Standards

    2.1

     ASTM Adjuncts

    2.2

     ASTM Manuals

    2.3

     NFPA Documents

    2.4

     CGA Documents

    2.5

     EIGA Documents

    2.6

    Terminology

    3

    Significance and Use

    4

     Purpose of G88

    4.1

     Role of G88

    4.2

     Use of G88

    4.3

    Factors Affecting the Design for an Oxygen or Oxygen-
     Enriched System

    5

     General

    5.1

     Factors Recognized as Causing Fires

    5.2

      Temperature

    5.2.1

      Spontaneous Ignition

    5.2.2

      Pressure

    5.2.3

      Concentration

    5.2.4

      Contamination

    5.2.5

      Particle Impact

    5.2.6

      Heat of Compression

    5.2.7

      Friction and Galling

    5.2.8

      Resonance

    5.2.9

      Static Electric Discharge

    5.2.10

      Electrical Arc

    5.2.11

      Flow Friction

    5.2.12

      Mechanical Impact

    5.2.13

      Kindling Chain

    5.2.14

      Other Ignition Mechanisms

    5.2.15

    Test Methods

    6

    System Design Method

    7

     Overview

    7.1

     Final Design

    7.2

     Avoid Unnecessarily Elevated Temperatures

    7.3

     Avoid Unnecessarily Elevated Pressures

    7.4

     Design for System Cleanness

    7.5

     Avoid Particle Impacts

    7.6

     Minimize Heat of Compression

    7.7

     Avoid Friction and Galling

    7.8

     Avoid Corrosion

    7.9

     Avoid Resonance

    7.10

     Use Proven Hardware

    7.11

     Design to Manage Fires

    7.12

     Anticipate Indirect Oxygen Exposure

    7.13

     Minimize Available Fuel/Oxygen

    7.14

     Avoid Potentially Exothermic Material Combinations

    7.15

     Anticipate Common Failure Mechanism Consequences

    7.16

     Avoid High Surface-Area-to-Volume (S/V) Conditions
      where Practical

    7.17

     Avoid Unnecessarily-Elevated Oxygen Concentrations

    7.18

     Anticipate Permutations from Intended System Design

    7.19

     Avoid Designs and Failure Scenarios that can Introduce
      Potential Flow Friction Ignition Hazards

    7.20

     Use Only the Most Compatible of Practical Materials
      and Designs

    7.21

     Provide Thorough Safety Training for All Personnel
      Working with Oxygen or Oxygen-Enriched
      Components or Systems, including Design,
      Cleaning, Assembly, Operations, and
      Maintenance as Applicable to Personnel

    7.22

     Miscellaneous

    7.23

    Examples

    8

    Key Words

    9

    References

     



    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    G63 Guide for Evaluating Nonmetallic Materials for Oxygen Service

    G72 Test Method for Autogenous Ignition Temperature of Liquids and Solids in a High-Pressure Oxygen-Enriched Environment

    G74 Test Method for Ignition Sensitivity of Nonmetallic Materials and Components by Gaseous Fluid Impact

    G93 Practice for Cleaning Methods and Cleanliness Levels for Material and Equipment Used in Oxygen-Enriched Environments

    G94 Guide for Evaluating Metals for Oxygen Service

    G128 Guide for Control of Hazards and Risks in Oxygen Enriched Systems

    G175 Test Method for Evaluating the Ignition Sensitivity and Fault Tolerance of Oxygen Regulators Used for Medical and Emergency Applications

    NFPA Standards

    NFPA50 Standard for Bulk Oxygen Systems at Consumer Sites

    NFPA53 Recommended Practice on Materials, Equipment, and Systems Used in Oxygen-Enriched Atmospheres


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 11.040.10 (Anaesthetic, respiratory and reanimation equipment)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code


    Referencing This Standard

    DOI: 10.1520/G0088

    ASTM International is a member of CrossRef.

    Citation Format

    ASTM G88-13, Standard Guide for Designing Systems for Oxygen Service, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2013, www.astm.org

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