Significance and Use
This test method describes an EPR test method for quantitatively determining the relative degree of sensitization in AISI Type 304 and 304L stainless steels. The EPR test has found wide use as a means to provide a numerical level of sensitization in studies of the effects of sensitization on intergranular corrosion and intergranular stress corrosion cracking behavior. The results of this test method correlate with other test methods (for example, Practices A262 and Test Methods G28) that are commonly used to assess sensitization in stainless steels.
The EPR test can also be used for product acceptance, service evaluation, regulatory statutes, and manufacturing controls providing that both the supplier and user have agreed upon appropriate acceptance criteria and a sensitizing treatment. The test is not intended for design purposes since the test conditions accelerate corrosion in a manner that does not simulate any actual service environment.
The EPR test involves the measurement of the amount of charge resulting from the corrosion of the chromium-depleted regions surrounding the precipitated chromium carbide particles. Most of these particles in a sensitized microstructure are located at the grain boundaries. However, discrete particles located within grains (referred to as intragranular precipitates) will also contribute to the total measured charge. (See Fig. 2.) Therefore, it is important to examine the alloy microstructure following an EPR test to determine the relative proportion of corrosion sites associated with intergranular versus intragranular precipitates. Sites of intergranular attack will appear similar to grain boundary ditching as defined in Practice A of Practices A262.
Note—The calculation of Pa is based on the assumptions illustrated at left. Mild cases of sensitization usually result in a combination of intergranular attack and pitting as illustrated at right (7). FIG. 2 Schematic Microstructures After EPR Testing
1.1 This test method covers a laboratory procedure for conducting an electrochemical reactivation (EPR) test on AISI Type 304 and 304L (UNS No. S30400 and S30403, respectively) stainless steels. This test method can provide a nondestructive means of quantifying the degree of sensitization in these steels (1, 2, 3). This test method has found wide acceptance in studies of the effects of sensitization on intergranular corrosion and intergranular stress corrosion cracking behavior (see Terminology G15). The EPR technique has been successfully used to evaluate other stainless steels and nickel base alloys (4), but the test conditions and evaluation criteria used were modified in each case from those cited in this test method.
1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The inch-pound units given in parentheses are for information only.
1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
A262 Practices for Detecting Susceptibility to Intergranular Attack in Austenitic Stainless Steels
D1193 Specification for Reagent Water
E3 Guide for Preparation of Metallographic Specimens
E7 Terminology Relating to Metallography
E112 Test Methods for Determining Average Grain Size
G1 Practice for Preparing, Cleaning, and Evaluating Corrosion Test Specimens
G3 Practice for Conventions Applicable to Electrochemical Measurements in Corrosion Testing
G5 Reference Test Method for Making Potentiostatic and Potentiodynamic Anodic Polarization Measurements
G15 Terminology Relating to Corrosion and Corrosion Testing
G28 Test Methods for Detecting Susceptibility to Intergranular Corrosion in Wrought, Nickel-Rich, Chromium-Bearing Alloys
G61 Test Method for Conducting Cyclic Potentiodynamic Polarization Measurements for Localized Corrosion Susceptibility of Iron-, Nickel-, or Cobalt-Based Alloys
carbide precipitation; electrochemical reactivation (EPR) test; electrochemical test; intergranular corrosion; sensitization; stress corrosion cracking; Sensitization; Stainless steel (corrosion testing); Stress corrosion cracking (SCC); Carbide precipitation; Electrochemical measurements/testing; Electrochemical reactivation (EPR) test; EPR test; Intergranular attack (IGA); Nondestructive evaluation (NDE)--metallic materials; Potentiodynamic anodic polarization measurements;
ICS Number Code 77.140.20 (Steels of high quality)
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