Significance and Use
There are several purposes of this test:
For transmission loss: (a) to characterize the sound insulation characteristics of materials in a less expensive and less time consuming approach than Test Method E 90 and ISO 140-3 (“reverberant room methods”), (b) to allow small samples tested when larger samples are impossible to construct or to transport, (c) to allow a rapid technique that does not require an experienced professional to run.
For transfer matrix: (a) to determine additional acoustic properties of the material; (b) to allow calculation of acoustic properties of built-up or composite materials by the combination of their individual transfer matrices.
There are significant differences between this method and that of the more traditional reverberant room method. Specifically, in this approach the sound impinges on the specimen in a perpendicular direction (“normal incidence”) only, compared to the random incidence of traditional methods. Additionally, revereration room methods specify certain minimum sizes for test specimens which may not be practical for all materials. At present the correlation, if any, between the two methods is not known. Even though this method may not replicate the reverberant room methods for measuring the transmission loss of materials, it can provide comparison data for small specimens, something that cannot be done in the reverberant room method. Normal incidence transmission loss may also be useful in certain situations where the material is placed within a small acoustical cavity close to a sound source, for example, a closely-fitted machine enclosure or portable electronic device.
Transmission loss is not only a property of a material, but is also strongly dependent on boundary conditions inherent in the method and details of the way the material is mounted. This must be considered in the interpretation of the results obtained by this test method.
The quantities are measured as a function of frequency with a resolution determined by the sampling rate, transform size, and other parameters of a digital frequency analysis system. The usable frequency range depends on the diameter of the tube and the spacing between the microphone positions. An extended frequency range may be obtained by using tubes with various diameters and microphone spacings.
The application of materials into acoustical system elements will probably not be similar to this test method and therefore results obtained by this method may not correlate with performance in-situ.
1.1 This test method covers the use of a tube, four microphones, and a digital frequency analysis system for the measurement of normal incident transmission loss and other important acoustic properties of materials by determination of the acoustic transfer matrix.
1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
C634 Terminology Relating to Building and Environmental Acoustics
E90 Test Method for Laboratory Measurement of Airborne Sound Transmission Loss of Building Partitions and Elements
E1050 Test Method for Impedance and Absorption of Acoustical Materials Using a Tube, Two Microphones and a Digital Frequency Analysis System
ISO140-3 Acoustics--Measurement of Sound Insulation in Buildings and of Building Elements--Part 3: Laboratory Measurement of Airborne Sound Insulation of Building Elements Available from American National Standards Institute (ANSI), 25 W. 43rd St., 4th Floor, New York, NY 10036, http://www.ansi.org.
4-microphone; impedance tube; normal incidence; transfer function; transfer matrix; transmission loss;
ICS Number Code 17.140.01 (Acoustic measurements and noise abatement in general)
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Citing ASTM Standards
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