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Significance and Use
PCS is one of the very few techniques that are able to deal with the measurement of particle size distribution in the nano-size region. This Guide highlights this light scattering technique, generally applicable in the particle size range from the sub-nm region until the onset of sedimentation in the sample. The PCS technique is usually applied to slurries or suspensions of solid material in a liquid carrier. It is a first principles method (that is, calibration in the standard understanding of this word, is not involved). The measurement is hydrodynamically based and therefore provides size information in the suspending medium (typically water). Thus the hydrodynamic diameter will almost certainly differ from other size diameters isolated by other techniques and users of the PCS technique need to be aware of the distinction of the various descriptors of particle diameter before making comparisons between techniques. Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, the technique is widely applied in industry and academia as both a research and development tool and as a QC method for the characterization of submicron systems.
1.1 This guide deals with the measurement of particle size distribution of suspended particles, which are solely or predominantly sub-100 nm, using the photon correlation (PCS) technique. It does not provide a complete measurement methodology for any specific nanomaterial, but provides a general overview and guide as to the methodology that should be followed for good practice, along with potential pitfalls.
1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
E177 Practice for Use of the Terms Precision and Bias in ASTM Test Methods
E691 Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method
E1617 Practice for Reporting Particle Size Characterization Data
F1877 Practice for Characterization of Particles
ISO StandardsISO13321 Particle Size Analysis--Photon Correlation Spectroscopy
ICS Number Code 71.100.01 (Products of the chemical industry in general)