ASTM E2481 - 12

    Standard Test Method for Hot Spot Protection Testing of Photovoltaic Modules

    Active Standard ASTM E2481 | Developed by Subcommittee: E44.09

    Book of Standards Volume: 12.02


      Format Pages Price  
    PDF 5 $43.00   ADD TO CART
    Hardcopy (shipping and handling) 5 $43.00   ADD TO CART
    Standard + Redline PDF Bundle 10 $51.60   ADD TO CART


    Significance and Use

    4.1 The design of a photovoltaic module or system intended to provide safe conversion of the sun's radiant energy into useful electricity must take into consideration the possibility of partial shadowing of the module(s) during operation. This test method describes a procedure for verifying that the design and construction of the module provides adequate protection against the potential harmful effects of hot spots during normal installation and use.

    4.2 This test method describes a procedure for determining the ability of the module to provide protection from internal defects which could cause loss of electrical insulation or combustion hazards.

    4.3 Hot-spot heating occurs in a module when its operating current exceeds the reduced short-circuit current (Isc) of a shadowed or faulty cell or group of cells. When such a condition occurs, the affected cell or group of cells is forced into reverse bias and must dissipate power, which can cause overheating.

    Note 1The correct use of bypass diodes can prevent hot spot damage from occurring.

    4.4 Fig. 1 illustrates the hot-spot effect in a module of a series string of cells, one of which, cell Y, is partially shadowed. The amount of electrical power dissipated in Y is equal to the product of the module current and the reverse voltage developed across Y. For any irradiance level, when the reverse voltage across Y is equal to the voltage generated by the remaining ( s-1) cells in the module, power dissipation is at a maximum when the module is short-circuited. This is shown in Fig. 1 by the shaded rectangle constructed at the intersection of the reverse I-V characteristic of Y with the image of the forward I-V characteristic of the (s-1) cells.

    Hot Spot Effect
    FIG. 1 Hot Spot Effect

    4.5 By-pass diodes, if present, as shown in Fig. 2, begin conducting when a series-connected string in a module is in reverse bias, thereby limiting the power dissipation in the reduced-output cell.

    Bypass Diode Effect
    FIG. 2 Bypass Diode Effect
    Note 2If the module does not contain bypass diodes, check the manufacturer’s instructions to see if a maximum number of series modules is recommended before installing bypass diodes. If the maximum number of modules recommended is greater than one, the hot spot test should be preformed with that number of modules in series. For convenience, a constant current power supply may be substituted for the additional modules to maintain the specified current.

    4.6 The reverse characteristics of solar cells can vary considerably. Cells can have either high shunt resistance where the reverse performance is voltage-limited or have low shunt resistance where the reverse performance is current-limited. Each of these types of cells can suffer hot spot problems, but in different ways.

    4.6.1 Low-Shunt Resistance Cells :

    4.6.1.1 The worst case shadowing conditions occur when the whole cell (or a large fraction) is shadowed.

    4.6.1.2 Often low shunt resistance cells are this way because of localized shunts. In this case hot spot heating occurs because a large amount of current flows in a small area. Because this is a localized phenomenon, there is a great deal of scatter in performance of this type of cell. Cells with the lowest shunt resistance have a high likelihood of operating at excessively high temperatures when reverse biased.

    4.6.1.3 Because the heating is localized, hot spot failures of low shunt resistance cells occur quickly.

    4.6.2 High Shunt Resistance Cells :

    4.6.2.1 The worst case shadowing conditions occur when a small fraction of the cell is shadowed.

    4.6.2.2 High shunt resistance cells limit the reverse current flow of the circuit and therefore heat up. The cell with the highest shunt resistance will have the highest power dissipation.

    4.6.2.3 Because the heating is uniform over the whole area of the cell, it can take a long time for the cell to heat to the point of causing damage.

    4.6.2.4 High shunt resistance cells define the need for bypass diodes in the module’s circuit, and their performance characteristics determine the number of cells that can be protected by each diode.

    4.7 The major technical issue is how to identify the highest and lowest shunt resistance cells and then how to determine the worst case shadowing for those cells. If the bypass diodes are removable, cells with localized shunts can be identified by reverse biasing the cell string and using an IR camera to observe hot spots. If the module circuit is accessible the current flow through the shadowed cell can be monitored directly. However, many PV modules do not have removable diodes or accessible electric circuits. Therefore a non-intrusive method is needed that can be utilized on those modules.

    4.8 The selected approach is based on taking a set of I-V curves for a module with each cell shadowed in turn. Fig. 3 shows the resultant set of I-V curves for a sample module. The curve with the highest leakage current at the point where the diode turns on was taken when the cell with the lowest shunt resistance was shadowed. The curve with the lowest leakage current at the point where the diode turns on was taken when the cell with the highest shunt resistance was shadowed.

    Module I-V Characteristics with Different Cells Totally
Shadowed
    FIG. 3 Module I-V Characteristics with Different Cells Totally Shadowed

    4.9 If the module to be tested has parallel strings, each string must be tested separately.

    4.10 This test method may be specified as part of a series of qualification tests including performance measurements and demonstration of functional requirements. It is the responsibility of the user of this test method to specify the minimum acceptance criteria for physical or electrical degradation.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This test method provides a procedure to determine the ability of a photovoltaic (PV) module to endure the long-term effects of periodic “hot spot” heating associated with common fault conditions such as severely cracked or mismatched cells, single-point open circuit failures (for example, interconnect failures), partial (or non-uniform) shadowing or soiling. Such effects typically include solder melting or deterioration of the encapsulation, but in severe cases could progress to combustion of the PV module and surrounding materials.

    1.2 There are two ways that cells can cause a hot spot problem; either by having a high resistance so that there is a large resistance in the circuit, or by having a low resistance area (shunt) such that there is a high-current flow in a localized region. This test method selects cells of both types to be stressed.

    1.3 This test method does not establish pass or fail levels. The determination of acceptable or unacceptable results is beyond the scope of this test method.

    1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

    1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    E772 Terminology of Solar Energy Conversion

    E927 Specification for Solar Simulation for Photovoltaic Testing

    E1036 Test Methods for Electrical Performance of Nonconcentrator Terrestrial Photovoltaic Modules and Arrays Using Reference Cells

    E1799 Practice for Visual Inspections of Photovoltaic Modules

    E1802 Test Methods for Wet Insulation Integrity Testing of Photovoltaic Modules


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 27.160 (Solar energy engineering)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 32111701(Photovoltaic cells)


    Referencing This Standard

    DOI: 10.1520/E2481-12

    ASTM International is a member of CrossRef.

    Citation Format

    ASTM E2481-12, Standard Test Method for Hot Spot Protection Testing of Photovoltaic Modules, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2012, www.astm.org

    Back to Top