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Significance and Use
This test method may be used for material development, characterization, design data generation, and quality control purposes.
This test method is specifically appropriate for determining the modulus of materials that are elastic, homogeneous, and isotropic (1).
This test method addresses the room temperature determination of dynamic moduli of elasticity of slender bars (rectangular cross section) and rods (cylindrical). Flat plates and disks may also be measured similarly, but the required equations for determining the moduli are not addressed herein.
This dynamic test method has several advantages and differences from static loading techniques and from resonant techniques requiring continuous excitation.
The test method is nondestructive in nature and can be used for specimens prepared for other tests. The specimens are subjected to minute strains; hence, the moduli are measured at or near the origin of the stress-strain curve, with the minimum possibility of fracture.
The impulse excitation test uses an impact tool and simple supports for the test specimen. There is no requirement for complex support systems that require elaborate setup or alignment.
This technique can be used to measure resonant frequencies alone for the purposes of quality control and acceptance of test specimens of both regular and complex shapes. A range of acceptable resonant frequencies is determined for a specimen with a particular geometry and mass. The technique is particularly suitable for testing specimens with complex geometries (other than parallelepipeds, cylinders/rods, or disks) that would not be suitable for testing by other procedures. Any specimen with a frequency response falling outside the prescribed frequency range is rejected. The actual modulus of each specimen need not be determined as long as the limits of the selected frequency range are known to include the resonant frequency that the specimen must possess if its geometry and mass are within specified tolerances.
If a thermal treatment or an environmental exposure affects the elastic response of the test specimen, this test method may be suitable for the determination of specific effects of thermal history, environment exposure, and so forth. Specimen descriptions should include any specific thermal treatments or environmental exposures that the specimens have received.
1.1 This test method covers determination of the dynamic elastic properties of elastic materials at ambient temperatures. Specimens of these materials possess specific mechanical resonant frequencies that are determined by the elastic modulus, mass, and geometry of the test specimen. The dynamic elastic properties of a material can therefore be computed if the geometry, mass, and mechanical resonant frequencies of a suitable (rectangular or cylindrical geometry) test specimen of that material can be measured. Dynamic Young's modulus is determined using the resonant frequency in either the flexural or longitudinal mode of vibration. The dynamic shear modulus, or modulus of rigidity, is found using torsional resonant vibrations. Dynamic Young's modulus and dynamic shear modulus are used to compute Poisson's ratio.
1.2 Although not specifically described herein, this test method can also be performed at cryogenic and high temperatures with suitable equipment modifications and appropriate modifications to the calculations to compensate for thermal expansion.
1.3 There are material specific ASTM standards that cover the determination of resonance frequencies and elastic properties of specific materials by sonic resonance or by impulse excitation of vibration. Test Methods C 215
1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
C215 Test Method for Fundamental Transverse, Longitudinal, and Torsional Resonant Frequencies of Concrete Specimens
C372 Test Method for Linear Thermal Expansion of Porcelain Enamel and Glaze Frits and Fired Ceramic Whiteware Products by the Dilatometer Method
C623 Test Method for Youngs Modulus, Shear Modulus, and Poissons Ratio for Glass and Glass-Ceramics by Resonance
C747 Test Method for Moduli of Elasticity and Fundamental Frequencies of Carbon and Graphite Materials by Sonic Resonance
C848 Test Method for Youngs Modulus, Shear Modulus, and Poissons Ratio For Ceramic Whitewares by Resonance
C1161 Test Method for Flexural Strength of Advanced Ceramics at Ambient Temperature
C1198 Test Method for Dynamic Youngs Modulus, Shear Modulus, and Poissons Ratio for Advanced Ceramics by Sonic Resonance
C1259 Test Method for Dynamic Youngs Modulus, Shear Modulus, and Poissons Ratio for Advanced Ceramics by Impulse Excitation of Vibration
E6 Terminology Relating to Methods of Mechanical Testing
E177 Practice for Use of the Terms Precision and Bias in ASTM Test Methods
ICS Number Code 81.060.20 (Ceramic products)