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Significance and Use
Liquid penetrant testing methods indicate the presence, location and, to a limited extent, the nature and magnitude of the detected discontinuities. Each of the various penetrant methods has been designed for specific uses such as critical service items, volume of parts, portability or localized areas of examination. The method selected will depend accordingly on the design and service requirements of the parts or materials being tested.
1.1 This practice covers procedures for penetrant examination of materials. Penetrant testing is a nondestructive testing method for detecting discontinuities that are open to the surface such as cracks, seams, laps, cold shuts, shrinkage, laminations, through leaks, or lack of fusion and is applicable to in-process, final, and maintenance testing. It can be effectively used in the examination of nonporous, metallic materials, ferrous and nonferrous metals, and of nonmetallic materials such as nonporous glazed or fully densified ceramics, as well as certain nonporous plastics, and glass.
1.2 This practice also provides a reference:
1.2.1 By which a liquid penetrant examination process recommended or required by individual organizations can be reviewed to ascertain its applicability and completeness.
1.2.2 For use in the preparation of process specifications and procedures dealing with the liquid penetrant testing of parts and materials. Agreement by the customer requesting penetrant inspection is strongly recommended. All areas of this practice may be open to agreement between the cognizant engineering organization and the supplier, or specific direction from the cognizant engineering organization.
1.2.3 For use in the organization of facilities and personnel concerned with liquid penetrant testing.
1.3 This practice does not indicate or suggest criteria for evaluation of the indications obtained by penetrant testing. It should be pointed out, however, that after indications have been found, they must be interpreted or classified and then evaluated. For this purpose there must be a separate code, standard, or a specific agreement to define the type, size, location, and direction of indications considered acceptable, and those considered unacceptable.
1.4 Units—The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard.
1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
Military StandardMIL-STD-410 Nondestructive Testing Personnel Qualification and Certification Available from Standardization Documents Order Desk, DODSSP, Bldg. 4, Section D, 700 Robbins Ave., Philadelphia, PA 19111-5098, http://www.dodssp.daps.mil.
APHA Standard429 Method for the Examination of Water and Wastewater Available from American Public Health Association, Publication Office, 1015 Fifteenth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20005.
AIA StandardNAS-410 Certification and Qualification of Nondestructive Test Personnel Available from Aerospace Industries Association of America, Inc. (AIA), 1000 Wilson Blvd., Suite 1700, Arlington, VA 22209-3928, http://www.aia-aerospace.org.
SAE StandardsQPL-AMS-2644 Qualified Products of Inspection Materials, Penetrant
D129 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products (General High Pressure Decomposition Device Method)
D808 Test Method for Chlorine in New and Used Petroleum Products (High Pressure Decomposition Device Method)
D1193 Specification for Reagent Water
D1552 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products (High-Temperature Method)
D4327 Test Method for Anions in Water by Suppressed Ion Chromatography
E433 Reference Photographs for Liquid Penetrant Inspection
E516 Practice for Testing Thermal Conductivity Detectors Used in Gas Chromatography
E543 Specification for Agencies Performing Nondestructive Testing
E1208 Practice for Fluorescent Liquid Penetrant Testing Using the Lipophilic Post-Emulsification Process
E1209 Practice for Fluorescent Liquid Penetrant Testing Using the Water-Washable Process
E1210 Practice for Fluorescent Liquid Penetrant Testing Using the Hydrophilic Post-Emulsification Process
E1219 Practice for Fluorescent Liquid Penetrant Testing Using the Solvent-Removable Process
E1220 Practice for Visible Penetrant Testing Using Solvent-Removable Process
E1316 Terminology for Nondestructive Examinations
E1417 Practice for Liquid Penetrant Testing
E1418 Practice for Visible Penetrant Testing Using the Water-Washable Process
E2297 Guide for Use of UV-A and Visible Light Sources and Meters used in the Liquid Penetrant and Magnetic Particle Methods
ASNT DocumentANSI/ASNTCP-189 Standard for Qualification and Certification of Nondestructive Testing Personnel
ICS Number Code 19.100 (Non-destructive testing)