Significance and Use
The identification of an ignitable liquid residue in samples from a fire scene can support the field investigator's opinion regarding the origin, fuel load, and incendiary nature of the fire.
The identification of an ignitable liquid residue in a fire scene does not necessarily lead to the conclusion that a fire was incendiary in nature. Further investigation may reveal a legitimate reason for the presence of ignitable liquid residues.
Because of the volatility of ignitable liquids and variations in sampling techniques, the absence of detectable quantities of ignitable liquid residues does not necessarily lead to the conclusion that ignitable liquids were not present at the fire scene.
Materials normally found in a building, upon exposure to the heat of a fire, will form pyrolysis and combustion products. Extracted ion profiling and target compound identification techniques described herein may facilitate the identification of an ignitable liquid in the extract by reducing interference by components generated as products of pyrolysis.
1.1 This test method covers the identification of residues of ignitable liquids in extracts from fire debris samples. Extraction procedures are described in the referenced documents.
1.2 Although this test method is suitable for all samples, it is especially appropriate for extracts that contain high background levels of substrate materials or pyrolysis and combustion products. This test method is also suitable for the identification of single compounds, simple mixtures, or non-petroleum based ignitable liquids.
1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
E1386 Practice for Separation of Ignitable Liquid Residues from Fire Debris Samples by Solvent Extraction
E1388 Practice for Sampling of Headspace Vapors from Fire Debris Samples
E1412 Practice for Separation of Ignitable Liquid Residues from Fire Debris Samples by Passive Headspace Concentration With Activated Charcoal
E1413 Practice for Separation and Concentration of Ignitable Liquid Residues from Fire Debris Samples by Dynamic Headspace Concentration
E2154 Practice for Separation and Concentration of Ignitable Liquid Residues from Fire Debris Samples by Passive Headspace Concentration with Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME)
E2451 Practice for Preserving Ignitable Liquids and Ignitable Liquid Residue Extracts from Fire Debris Samples
fire debris samples; forensic sciences; gas chromatography; ignitable liquid residues; mass spectrometry; Alcohol; Alkanes/Alkenes; Aromatic compounds; Cycloalkane; Esters; Fire debris samples; Forensic investigation/analysis; Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS); Ignitable liquid residues; Ketones; Mass spectrometry; Polynuclear aromatic compounds; Residue--fires; Selected ion profiles (SIP); Target compound chromatogram (TCC); Total ion chromatogram (TIC) ;
ICS Number Code 13.220.99 (Other standards related to fire protection)
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