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Significance and Use
These test methods are intended to evaluate the duration for which the types of building elements noted in 1.1 contain a fire, retain their structural integrity, or exhibit both properties during a predetermined test exposure.
The test exposes a test specimen to a standard fire controlled to achieve specified temperatures throughout a specified time period. When required, the fire exposure is followed by the application of a specified standard fire hose stream applied in accordance with Practice E2226. The test provides a relative measure of the fire-test-response of comparable building elements under these fire exposure conditions. The exposure is not representative of all fire conditions because conditions vary with changes in the amount, nature and distribution of fire loading, ventilation, compartment size and configuration, and heat sink characteristics of the compartment. Variation from the test conditions or test specimen construction, such as size, materials, method of assembly, also affects the fire-test-response. For these reasons, evaluation of the variation is required for application to construction in the field.
The test standard provides for the following:
For walls, partitions, and floor or roof test specimens:
Measurement of the transmission of heat.
Measurement of the transmission of hot gases through the test specimen.
For loadbearing elements, measurement of the load carrying ability of the test specimen during the test exposure.
For individual loadbearing members such as beams and columns:
Measurement of the load carrying ability under the test exposure with consideration for the end support conditions (that is, restrained or not restrained).
The test standard does not provide the following:
Information as to performance of test specimens constructed with components or lengths other than those tested.
Evaluation of the degree by which the test specimen contributes to the fire hazard by generation of smoke, toxic gases, or other products of combustion.
Measurement of the degree of control or limitation of the passage of smoke or products of combustion through the test specimen.
Simulation of the fire behavior of joints between building elements such as floor-wall or wall-wall, etc., connections.
Measurement of flame spread over the surface of test specimens.
The effect on fire-resistance of conventional openings in the test specimen, that is, electrical receptacle outlets, plumbing pipe, etc., unless specifically provided for in the construction tested. Also see Test Method E814 for testing of fire stops.
1.1 The test methods described in this fire-test-response standard are applicable to assemblies of masonry units and to composite assemblies of structural materials for buildings, including loadbearing and other walls and partitions, columns, girders, beams, slabs, and composite slab and beam assemblies for floors and roofs. They are also applicable to other assemblies and structural units that constitute permanent integral parts of a finished building.
1.2 It is the intent that classifications shall register comparative performance to specific fire-test conditions during the period of exposure and shall not be construed as having determined suitability under other conditions or for use after fire exposure.
1.3 This standard is used to measure and describe the response of materials, products, or assemblies to heat and flame under controlled conditions, but does not by itself incorporate all factors required for fire hazard or fire risk assessment of the materials, products or assemblies under actual fire conditions.
1.4 These test methods prescribe a standard fire exposure for comparing the test results of building construction assemblies. The results of these tests are one factor in assessing predicted fire performance of building construction and assemblies. Application of these test results to predict the performance of actual building construction requires the evaluation of test conditions.
1.5 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard.
1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.7 The text of this standard references notes and footnotes which provide explanatory material. These notes and footnotes (excluding those in tables and figures) shall not be considered as requirements of the standard.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
C569 Test Method for Indentation Hardness of Preformed Thermal Insulations
D6513 Practice for Calculating the Superimposed Load on Wood-frame Walls for Standard Fire-Resistance Tests
E176 Terminology of Fire Standards
E177 Practice for Use of the Terms Precision and Bias in ASTM Test Methods
E691 Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method
E814 Test Method for Fire Tests of Penetration Firestop Systems
E2226 Practice for Application of Hose Stream
ICS Number Code 13.220.50 (Fire-resistance of building materials and elements); 91.100.01 (Construction materials)