ASTM E108 - 11

    Standard Test Methods for Fire Tests of Roof Coverings

    Active Standard ASTM E108 | Developed by Subcommittee: E05.14

    Book of Standards Volume: 04.07


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    Significance and Use

    The test methods described herein are intended to provide a basis for relative comparison of roof coverings. The test methods include simulated fire exposure to the outside of the roof coverings, and, where applicable, a determination as to whether the fire performance characteristics of the roof coverings will be adversely affected by prolonged exposure to rain.

    These test methods measure the surface spread of flame and the ability of the roof covering material or system to resist fire penetration from the exterior to the underside of a roof deck under the conditions of exposure.

    These test methods also provide criteria to determine if the roof covering material will develop flying burning material, identified as flying brands, when subjected to a 12-mph (5.3-m/s) wind during the simulated fire exposure tests.

    These test methods do not necessarily illustrate the expected performance of roof coverings under all actual fire conditions, but they do provide a basis for comparing roof covering materials when subjected to fire sources that are described herein.

    These test methods do not provide any basis for determining the fire resistance characteristics when exposed to a fire originating in the building to which the roofing material is applied.

    The test methods described herein involve calibrating the test equipment using a calibration deck inclined at a slope of 5 in. per horizontal ft (0.416:1). The tests described herein are performed on test decks inclined at slopes up to and including 5 in. per horizontal ft. The severity of the test exposure decreases as the slope of the test deck decreases below 5 in. per horizontal ft.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This fire-test-response standard covers the measurement of the relative fire characteristics of roof coverings under simulated fire originating outside the building. It is applicable to roof coverings intended for installation on either combustible or noncombustible decks when applied as intended for use. The following test methods are included:

    1.1.1 Intermittent flame exposure test.

    1.1.2 Spread of flame test.

    1.1.3 Burning brand test.

    1.1.4 Flying brand test.

    1.1.5 Rain test.

    1.2 Three classes of fire test exposure are described:

    1.2.1 Class A Tests are applicable to roof coverings that are effective against severe test exposure, afford a high degree of fire protection to the roof deck, do not slip from position, and do not present a flying brand hazard.

    1.2.2 Class B Tests are applicable to roof coverings that are effective against moderate test exposure, afford a moderate degree of fire protection to the roof deck, do not slip from position, and do not present a flying brand hazard.

    1.2.3 Class C Tests are applicable to roof coverings that are effective against light test exposure, afford a light degree of fire protection to the roof deck, do not slip from position, and do not present a flying brand hazard.

    1.3 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard.

    1.4 This standard is used to measure and describe the response of materials, products, or assemblies to heat and flame under controlled laboratory conditions, but does not by itself incorporate all factors required for fire hazard or fire risk assessment of the materials, products or assemblies under actual fire conditions.

    1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

    1.6 The text of this standard references notes and footnotes that provide explanatory information. These notes and footnotes, excluding those in tables and figures, shall not be considered as requirements of this standard.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D225 Specification for Asphalt Shingles (Organic Felt) Surfaced With Mineral Granules

    D226 Specification for Asphalt-Saturated Organic Felt Used in Roofing and Waterproofing

    D227 Specification for Coal-Tar-Saturated Organic Felt Used in Roofing and Waterproofing

    D312 Specification for Asphalt Used in Roofing

    D450 Specification for Coal-Tar Pitch Used in Roofing, Dampproofing, and Waterproofing

    D1227 Specification for Emulsified Asphalt Used as a Protective Coating for Roofing

    D2178 Specification for Asphalt Glass Felt Used in Roofing and Waterproofing

    D2626 Specification for Asphalt-Saturated and Coated Organic Felt Base Sheet Used in Roofing

    D2898 Practice for Accelerated Weathering of Fire-Retardant-Treated Wood for Fire Testing

    D3018 Specification for Class A Asphalt Shingles Surfaced with Mineral Granules

    D3158 Specification for Asphalt Saturated and Coated Organic Felt Used in Roofing

    D3378 Specification for Asphalt-Saturated and Coated Asbestos Felt Base Sheet Used in Roofing

    D3462 Specification for Asphalt Shingles Made from Glass Felt and Surfaced with Mineral Granules

    D4442 Test Methods for Direct Moisture Content Measurement of Wood and Wood-Base Materials

    D4444 Test Method for Laboratory Standardization and Calibration of Hand-Held Moisture Meters


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 13.220.50 (Fire-resistance of building materials and elements); 91.060.20 (Roofs)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code


    Referencing This Standard

    DOI: 10.1520/E0108-11

    ASTM International is a member of CrossRef.

    Citation Format

    ASTM E108-11, Standard Test Methods for Fire Tests of Roof Coverings, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2010, www.astm.org

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